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Calaminarian Flora
Viola calaminaria, Zinc Pansy
Viola calaminaria / Zinc Pansy
Violaceae / Violet Fam.
 
Viola calaminaria, Zinc Pansy
Viola calaminaria / Zinc Pansy
Violaceae / Violet Fam.
 
Viola calaminaria, Zinc Pansy
Viola calaminaria / Zinc Pansy
Violaceae / Violet Fam.
 
'Calamine' is a miner's word for sulfur-free zinc ore, which emerged by alteration of the earlier available sulfureous blackjack (zinc blende) under influence of oxygenic waters. In much earlier ages the blackjack had evolved from volcanic activities. 'Calamine' contains lead and manganese beside the zinc, it can be available in rocky or earthy form.
My photos of the Calaminarian Flora have all be taken at Stolberg, where in nature reserve Schlangenberg near Stolberg-Breinigerberg the plants are accessible by paths. It is sure that the Romans digged for 'calamine' at the Schlangenberg about from 100 to 400 AD. Together with copper they treated it to brass, which has a brighter, more gold-like color than pure copper. It is assumed that before that the Celts digged for iron ore which is also available at the Schlangenberg.
'Calamine' is more or less poisonous for most of the plants, but in the course of time some plants adapted to it and established in this ecological niche. These plants are called 'Calaminarian Flora', of which the most well-known representative is the yellow Zinc Pansy, which is closely related to Viola lutea. According to this pansy the corresponding plant society is called 'Violetum calaminariae'. At the Schlangenberg beside the Zinc Pansy some more plants are adapted to the zincic soil, these are shown below.
 
Armeria maritima subsp. halleri, Calaminarian Thrift
Armeria maritima subsp. halleri / Calaminarian Thrift
Plumbaginaceae / Thrift Fam.
 
 
Armeria maritima subsp. halleri, Calaminarian Thrift
Armeria maritima subsp. halleri / Calaminarian Thrift
Plumbaginaceae / Thrift Fam.
 
 
Festuca aquisgranensis, Calaminarian Fescue
Festuca aquisgranensis / Calaminarian Fescue
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
 
Thlaspi calaminare, Calaminarian Penny-Cress
Thlaspi calaminare / Calaminarian Penny-Cress
Brassicaceae / Crucifers
 
 
Thlaspi calaminare, Calaminarian Penny-Cress
Thlaspi calaminare / Calaminarian Penny-Cress
Brassicaceae / Crucifers
 
 
Festuca aquisgranensis, Calaminarian Fescue
Festuca aquisgranensis / Calaminarian Fescue
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
 
Minuartia verna subsp. hercynica, Calaminarian Spring Sandwort
Minuartia verna subsp. hercynica / Calaminarian Spring Sandwort
Caryophyllaceae / Campion Fam.
 
 
Minuartia verna subsp. hercynica, Calaminarian Spring Sandwort
Minuartia verna subsp. hercynica / Calaminarian Spring Sandwort
Caryophyllaceae / Campion Fam.
 
 
Silene vulgaris var. humilis, Calaminarian Bladder Campion
Silene vulgaris var. humilis / Calaminarian Bladder Campion
Caryophyllaceae / Campion Fam.
 
 
Biotop
On the old mine dump of a former lead mine near Lichtenau-Blankenrode south of Paderborn in Westphalia a blue 'Calaminarian Pansy' called Viola guestphalica, is occurring instead of the yellow one. It is closer related to Viola tricolor than to Viola lutea. Correspondingly the plant society there is called 'Violetum guestphalicae'. Another difference is that in this plant society the Calaminarian Penny-Cress Thlaspi calaminare is substituted by Haller's Rock-Cress Cardaminopsis halleri.
Viola guestphalica, Blue Zinc Pansy, Westphalia Pansy
Viola guestphalica / Blue Zinc Pansy, Westphalia Pansy
Violaceae / Violet Fam.
 
Viola guestphalica, Blue Zinc Pansy, Westphalia Pansy
Viola guestphalica / Blue Zinc Pansy, Westphalia Pansy
Violaceae / Violet Fam.
 
Cardaminopsis halleri, Haller's Rock-Cress
Cardaminopsis halleri / Haller's Rock-Cress
Brassicaceae / Crucifers
 
 
 
 

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Orchideen
Orchids
 
Andere Pflanzen
Other Plants
 
Pflanzen nach Familien
Plants acc. to Families
 
.. Verwandtschaft
.. Relationship
 
.. wiss. Namen
.. Scientific Names
 
.. deut. Namen
.. German Names
 
.. engl. Namen
.. English Names
 
.. Art-Namen
.. Specific Names
 
.. Blütenbau
.. Flower Anatomy
 
.. Blütenfarben
.. Bloom Colors
 
.. Blattform
.. Leaf Form
 
.. Regionen
.. Regions
 
.. Aufn.-Monat
.. Photo Month
 
.. Früchten + Samen
.. Fruits + Seed
 
.. Wurzeln + Knollen
.. Roots + Bulbs
 
Bäume
Trees
 
Sträucher
Bushes
 
Wasser-Pfl.
Water Plants
 
Kletter-/Schling-Pfl.
Climbers + Twiners
 
Nutz-Pfl.
Useful Pl.
 
Zier-Pflanzen
Ornamental Pl.
 
Farb-Var.
Color Var.
 
Mehrere Kriterien
Multiple Criteria
 
Biotope + Gruppen
Biotopes + Groups
 
Botan.Links
Botan.Links
 
7-Mai-14

Copyright: Verwendung der Bilder und Texte nur mit schriftlicher Genehmigung des Autors.
Copyright: Use of the images and texts only with author's written permission.