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Neophytes in the 'Kurpfalz' (region around Mannheim and Heidelberg)
The 'Kurpfalz', i.e. the region around the cities Mannheim and Heidelberg in Southwest Germany, is located in the Upper Rhine Valley, and blessed with warm climate. Many neophytic plants have immigrated or been introduced there. 'Neophytic' and 'adventive plants' are wild plants, which were not originally growing there, but immigrated or were introduced since 1492. 'Neophytic' means those of the immigrated or introduced plants, which are able to adapt to the climatic and other conditions, and last permanently. The more general term 'adventive plant' is used for any plant which arrives newly, even if it isn't able to last. Plants which immigrated or have been introduced earlier than 1492 are called 'archaeophytes', but these are not the theme of this page.
 
Many of the neophytic plants which are still available today have been introduced from the Mediterranean or other continents by trading ships in the second half of the 19th century, and grew first at river harbors and railway territories. Beneath these neophytic species, which have been introduced without intention, there are others which have been introduced intentionally as ornamental or useful plants, but ran wild later. Some of these latter neophytic species cause problems for the native flora, because they oust weaker native plants. At least if this happens in nature reserves, measures have to be taken to protect the native variety of species.
 
Dittrichia graveolens, Stinking Fleabane
Dittrichia graveolens / Stinking Fleabane
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Remarkable many of the neophytic plants are Composites:
 

 
Left: The Stinking Fleabane Dittrichia graveolens has been introduced from the Mediterranean.
 

 
Right: The white flowering Diffuse Knapweed Centaurea diffusa originates from the areas of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. In the regions of Mannheim and Karlsruhe it can today be regarded as naturalized. Very similar plants with lilac flowers are usually hybrids with Panicled Knapweed Centaurea stoebe.
 

 
Row below: Both the Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia, which has fallen into disrepute due to its allergy-producing pollen, and the smaller Perennial Ragweed Ambrosia coronopifolia, originate from North America, as well as the tall Giant Ragweed Ambrosia trifida. The latter has become very rare in Mannheim, only in 2011 I managed to find one at the industrial port. These plants have many male blooms, whose pollen the wind carries to the few and small female blooms.
Centaurea diffusa, Diffuse Knapweed
Centaurea diffusa / Diffuse Knapweed
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Ragweed
Ambrosia artemisiifolia / Ragweed
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Ambrosia coronopifolia, Perennial Ragweed
Ambrosia coronopifolia / Perennial Ragweed
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Ambrosia trifida, Giant Ragweed
Ambrosia trifida / Giant Ragweed
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Iva xanthiifolia, Marsh Elder
Iva xanthiifolia / Marsh Elder
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Left: Of the Marsh Elder Iva xanthiifolia, which has been introduced from North America, I still know only one current site at Viernheim. Its propagation works similar to that of the Ambrosia species. The leaves show a remarkable similarity with those of the Cockleburs, on which the latin name is pointing.
 

 

 

 
Right: The Riverside Cocklebur Xanthium albinum shall have developed in Europe from species, which had been introduced from America ! In the region of Mannheim it can be regarded as naturalized.
Xanthium albinum, Riverside Cocklebur
Xanthium albinum / Riverside Cocklebur
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Bidens frondosa, Devil's Beggartick
Bidens frondosa / Devil's Beggartick
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Above: Devil's Beggartick Bidens frondosa originates from North America. It likes damp places, and is naturalized and not rare along the big rivers Rhine and Neckar.
 
Helianthus annuus, Sunflower
Helianthus annuus / Sunflower
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Above: Again and again the Sunflower which originates from America runs wild from birdseed, but ist doesn't establish itself steady.
 
Right: The Jerusalem Artichoke Helianthus tuberosus, which has formerly been cultivated as 'Sweet Potato', has run wild mainly along the big rivers. It has been introduced from North America.
Helianthus tuberosus, Jerusalem Artichoke
Helianthus tuberosus / Jerusalem Artichoke
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 

 

 

 

 

 
Right: Since the 19th century the two 'Soldiers' Galinsoga ciliata and Galinsoga parviflora are spreading in Southern Germany. Since in those times Germany and France were enimies, and the plants arrived from Western direction, one of their German names could be translated as "French Weed". But in reality they originate from the South American Andes.
Galinsoga ciliata, Shaggy Soldier
Galinsoga ciliata / Shaggy Soldier
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
 
Galinsoga parviflora, Gallant Soldier
Galinsoga parviflora / Gallant Soldier
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Guizotia abyssinica, Niger, Gingelli
Guizotia abyssinica / Niger, Gingelli
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Left: Niger Guizotia abyssinica is an important useful plant in Africa, where its seed is eaten. I found it at Mannheim on a soil depot and also in front of a shop for animal aliment.
 
Below and right: Naturally also the wide-spread large Goldenrods Solidago canadensis and Solidago gigantea are available in the 'Kurpfalz' region, introduced from North America. In suitable biotopes they are going to displace the native flora, since they have few natural enemies.
 
Solidago gigantea, Giant Goldenrod
Solidago gigantea / Giant Goldenrod
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Solidago canadensis, Canadian Goldenrod
Solidago canadensis / Canadian Goldenrod
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Bottom: The Eastern Groundsel Senecio vernalis originates from the sand steppes of South-East Europe and Western Asia, and reached Central Europe in the 19th century.
 
Senecio vernalis, Eastern Groundsel
Senecio vernalis / Eastern Groundsel
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Bottom: There are many native Ragworts and Groundsels, but the Narrow-Leaved Ragwort Senecio inaequidens originates from South Africa. Via stopovers in the Mediterranean where it had already been introduced in the 40's of the 20th century, it arrived in Central Europe in the 80's.
 
Senecio inaequidens, Narrow-Leaved Ragwort
Senecio inaequidens / Narrow-Leaved Ragwort
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Bottom: The Common Blanket Flower Gaillardia aristata which seems to have escaped from a flower bed has run wild in the Rhine port of Ludwigshafen and reproduces steadily.
 
Gaillardia aristata, Common Blanket Flower
Gaillardia aristata / Common Blanket Flower
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Crepis setosa, Bristly Hawk's-Beard
Crepis setosa / Bristly Hawk's-Beard
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 

 

 

 

 
Left: The Bristly Hawk's-Beard Crepis setosa is not rare on the sandy soils of the Rhein-Neckar region. It originates from the Eastern Mediterranean.
Achillea filipendulina, Fernleaf Yarrow
Achillea filipendulina / Fernleaf Yarrow
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
 

 

 

 

 
Left: Fernleaf Yarrow Achillea filipendulina which originates from Caucasus has spread at Mannheim from a planting to adjacent marginal strips and pavement gaps.
 

 
Right: The Mexican Fleabane Erigeron karvinskianus, a plant coming from Mexico, grows in a court in the city of Mannheim.
Erigeron karvinskianus, Mexican Fleabane
Erigeron karvinskianus / Mexican Fleabane
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
 
Conyza bonariensis, Argentine Fleabane
Conyza bonariensis / Argentine Fleabane
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
In Ludwigshafen Conyza albida can be found beneath Conyza bonariensis. Both originate from South America. Conyza albida, Tall Fleabane
Conyza albida / Tall Fleabane
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Conyza canadensis, Canadian Fleabane
Conyza canadensis / Canadian Fleabane
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
The plants of the next row originate from North America. The distribution of the American Daisies mainly along the big rivers and the determination of their exact species aren't well investigated yet, not only in the 'Kurpfalz'. Of several closely related species occurring here only two examples are shown in the left and middle photos below. The Canadian Fleabane Conyza canadensis (top right) and the Tall Fleabane Erigeron annuus (bottom right) are both wide spread and available in extremely big numbers.
Symphyotrichum lanceolatum, Narrow-Leaved Michaelmas Daisy, White Panicle Aster
Symphyotrichum lanceolatum / Narrow-Leaved Michaelmas Daisy, White Panicle Aster
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Symphyotrichum x versicolor, Late Michaelmas Daisy
Symphyotrichum x versicolor / Late Michaelmas Daisy
= Aster
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
 
Erigeron annuus, Tall Fleabane
Erigeron annuus / Tall Fleabane
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
 
Artemisia austriaca, Austrian Wormwood
Artemisia austriaca / Austrian Wormwood
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Artemisia scoparia, Redstem Wormwood, Virgate Sagebrush
Artemisia scoparia / Redstem Wormwood, Virgate Sagebrush
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
Artemisia annua, Annual Wormwood
Artemisia annua / Annual Wormwood
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
 
Artemisia verlotiorum, Chinese Mugwort
Artemisia verlotiorum / Chinese Mugwort
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
 
 
Top middle: From the Balcans to Asia occurs the Redstem Wormwood Artemisia scoparia. At a soil depot near Viernheim a strong plant was growing in 2008 which unfortunately I saw only in faded state.
 
Top left: The Austrian Wormwood Artemisia austriaca originates from the steppes of Eastern Europe and Asia. It can be found in the nature reserve Pferdstriebdüne near Sandhausen.
 
Top right: Also from South-East Europe and Western Asia comes the bright green, smelling Annual Wormwood Artemisia annua. In 2011 one stem was growing at a soil depot in the North of Mannheim.
 
Left: The Chinese Mugwort Artemisia verlotiorum has been introduced from East Asia with other plants. The sites in Heidelberg, which I know, are on waste land. But for the farmers of the Bodensee island of Reichenau it turned out as a serious weed.
The plants of the next three rows are naturalized at the Mannheim industrial port since years. Most of them have been introduced with foreign feeding stuff:
Symphyotrichum squamatum, Annual Saltmarsh Aster, Baby's Breath Aster
Symphyotrichum squamatum / Annual Saltmarsh Aster, Baby's Breath Aster
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
  Origin: South America
Anthemis ruthenica, Russian Chamomile
Anthemis ruthenica / Russian Chamomile
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
  Origin: Eastern Europe
Anthemis austriaca, Austrian Chamomile
Anthemis austriaca / Austrian Chamomile
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
  Origin: South-Eastern Europe
 
Anchusa officinalis subsp. procera, Tall Bugloss
Anchusa officinalis subsp. procera / Tall Bugloss
Boraginaceae / Borrage Fam.
  Origin: Mediterranean
 
Melilotus indicus, Small Melilot
Melilotus indicus / Small Melilot
Fabaceae / Legumes
  Origin: Asia
 
Cuscuta campestris, Yellow Dodder
Cuscuta campestris / Yellow Dodder
Convolvulaceae / Bindweed Fam.
  Origin: South-Eastern North-America
The host is here Sand Lucerne Medicago x varia
Cyperus esculentus, Chufa, Yellow Nut Sedge
Cyperus esculentus / Chufa, Yellow Nut Sedge
Cyperaceae / Sedge Fam.
  Origin: Mediterranean to Asia
 

 
Aegilops cylindrica, Jointed Goatgrass
Aegilops cylindrica / Jointed Goatgrass
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
  Origin: Mediterranean to Asia
 
Sorghum halepense, Johnson Grass
Sorghum halepense / Johnson Grass
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
Amaranthus rudis, Water Hemp
Amaranthus rudis / Water Hemp
Amaranthaceae / Amaranth Fam.
  female     Origin: North America
 
Amaranthus rudis, Water Hemp
Amaranthus rudis / Water Hemp
Amaranthaceae / Amaranth Fam.
  male
Solanum carolinense, Carolina Horsenettle
Solanum carolinense / Carolina Horsenettle
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
  Origin: South-Eastern USA
Lycium chinense, China Tea-Plant
Lycium chinense / China Tea-Plant
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
 
Both Thorn Apple Datura stramonium (right) from Central America and the China Tea-Plant Lycium chinense (left) from China are attractive plants of the Nightshade family, which were imported as garden plants. The similar Duke of Argyll's Tea-Plant Lycium barbarum has been planted at road sides in big amounts in order to fix the soil.
 

 
Die Blüten, obwohl ebenfalls weiß, sind auch etwas unterschiedlich. Ich fand ihn als Unterwuchs in einem Maisfeld und auf sandigem Ödland. The Ground-Cherry Nightshade Solanum physalifolium which is shown on the right below photo, and which is available near St.Leon, differs from the native Black Nightshade by stronger pilosity, bright green leaves, and glossy green berries with bigger petals. I found it in a maize field and on sandy wasteland.
 
The Saracha Nightshade Solanum sarachoides from South America on the photo below has longer petals around the green berries, sticky pilosity and an unpleasant smell. I found the Saracha Nightshade at several sites in Mannheim.
 
Datura stramonium, Thorn Apple
Datura stramonium / Thorn Apple
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
 
 
Solanum villosum, Wooly Nightshade
Solanum villosum / Wooly Nightshade
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
 
Solanum sarachoides, Saracha Nightshade
Solanum sarachoides / Saracha Nightshade
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
 
Solanum physalifolium, Ground-Cherry Nightshade, Hairy Nightshade
Solanum physalifolium / Ground-Cherry Nightshade, Hairy Nightshade
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
 
Above: The Wooly Nightshade Solanum villosum, has bright red berries and a strong pilosity. It came from South America and was found in Heidelberg. In the past it had been mentioned for several locations in the region, but usually it stayed only few years as long as the soil was open. Right: The Sticky Nightshade Solanum sisymbrifolium has eatable red fruits. Nevertheless it is not well known, because it's not very suitable for cash cropping, since the whole plant including the rips of the leaves is very spiny including the rips of the leaves. After the floodwater 2013 I found one stem of the South American plant at the bank of the Neckar near Mannheim. Solanum sisymbrifolium, Sticky Nightshade, Lychee Tomato
Solanum sisymbrifolium / Sticky Nightshade, Lychee Tomato
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
 
The plants in the following row have been found on a soil depot in Mannheim. Some of these are useful or ornamental plants which run wild:
Solanum triflorum, Small Nightshade
Solanum triflorum / Small Nightshade
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
  Origin: North America.
 

 
Persicaria orientalis, Oriental Smartweed, Oriental Knotweed
Persicaria orientalis / Oriental Smartweed, Oriental Knotweed
Polygonaceae / Knotweed Fam.
  Origin: Southern Asia
Panicum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum, Common Millet
Panicum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum / Common Millet
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
  Origin: Asia
Chamaesyce maculata, Spotted Spurge, Spotted Sandmat
Chamaesyce maculata / Spotted Spurge, Spotted Sandmat
Euphorbiaceae / Spurge Fam.
 
Here the Spotted Spurge Chamaesyce maculata grows mainly on the gravel paths of cemeteries. It is a small plant, its leaves are only 5 to 9 mm long. Its origin is North America.
 
Chamaesyce maculata, Spotted Spurge, Spotted Sandmat
Chamaesyce maculata / Spotted Spurge, Spotted Sandmat
Euphorbiaceae / Spurge Fam.
 
Similar is the Trailing Spurge Chamaesyce humifusa. Its leaves have no dark spot. It was imported from Asia. There is a site of it at the Rhine port of Ludwigshafen.
Chamaesyce serpens, Matted Sandmat, Creeping Spurge
Chamaesyce serpens / Matted Sandmat, Creeping Spurge
Euphorbiaceae / Spurge Fam.
 
In the city of Heidelberg you can find a third species, the Matted Sandmat Chamaesyce serpens which comes from America.
Euphorbia lathyris, Caper Spurge
Euphorbia lathyris / Caper Spurge
Euphorbiaceae / Spurge Fam.
 
 

 

 

 
Left: The Caper Spurge Euphorbia lathyris originates from Asia and the Mediterranean. Because it is said that it drives voles and moles away, it is grown in gardens, from where it often runs wild.
 

 

 

 
Right: The Variegated Spurge Euphorbia marginata which reproduced on a soil depot near Mannheim has been introduced from Mexico.
Euphorbia marginata, Variegated Spurge, White-Margined Spurge
Euphorbia marginata / Variegated Spurge, White-Margined Spurge
Euphorbiaceae / Spurge Fam.
 
 
Phytolacca americana, Pokeberry
Phytolacca americana / Pokeberry
Phytolaccaceae / Pokeweed Fam.
 
 
The Pokeberry Phytolacca americana whose origin from North America can already be seen in its latin name, has a horizontal inflorescense, but later the heavier fruit hangs downward.
In contrast to that the Pokeweed Phytolacca esculenta, whose inflorescense and fruits are upright, comes from Eastern Asia.
Phytolacca americana, Pokeberry
Phytolacca americana / Pokeberry
Phytolaccaceae / Pokeweed Fam.
 
Phytolacca esculenta, Pokeweed
Phytolacca esculenta / Pokeweed
Phytolaccaceae / Pokeweed Fam.
 
Impatiens parviflora, Small Balsam
Impatiens parviflora / Small Balsam
Balsaminaceae / Balsam Fam.
 
 

 

 

 
Left: Since about 1830 the Small Balsam Impatiens parviflora from Asia came into wout woods, where it is area-wide available today.
 

 

 
Right: The Indian Balsam Impatiens glandulifera has been introduced about 1840 from the Himalayas to England as feeding plant for honey bees. Since then it distributed at wet places almost all over Europe and displaces the native flora.
Impatiens glandulifera, Indian Balsam
Impatiens glandulifera / Indian Balsam
Balsaminaceae / Balsam Fam.
 
 
Also neophytic species like Hybrid Knodweed Fallopia x bohemica, one of its parents, Japanese Knodweed Fallopia japonica and Russian Vine Fallopia baldschuanica, which have been introduced as ornamental plants, are wide-spread now not only in the 'Kurpfalz'. Where one of these three plants occurs the native flora is very endangered to be displaced.
Fallopia x bohemica, Hybrid Knodweed
Fallopia x bohemica / Hybrid Knodweed
Polygonaceae / Knotweed Fam.
 
 
Fallopia japonica, Japanese Knodweed
Fallopia japonica / Japanese Knodweed
Polygonaceae / Knotweed Fam.
 
 
Fallopia baldschuanica, Russian Vine
Fallopia baldschuanica / Russian Vine
Polygonaceae / Knotweed Fam.
 
Many of the foreign ornamental plants, which the city gardener departments are using for amenity planting today, are able to reproduce in our climate. As always more new plants come into fashion, there is a risk that the number of neophytes will be dramatically increased soon, which can have incalculable consequences for the native nature. The next two rows show some of these plants, which e.g. in Weinheim (Bergstrasse, Southern Germany) already have run wild.
Panicum virgatum, Switch Grass
Panicum virgatum / Switch Grass
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
  Origin: North America
 
Pycnanthemum pilosum, Hairy Mountain Mint
Pycnanthemum pilosum / Hairy Mountain Mint
Lamiaceae / Mint Fam.
  Origin: North America
 
Solidago macrophylla <b>?</b>, Largeleaf Goldenrod
Solidago macrophylla ? / Largeleaf Goldenrod
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
  Origin: North America
 
Gaura lindheimeri, Bee Blossom, Whirling Butterflies
Gaura lindheimeri / Bee Blossom, Whirling Butterflies
Onagraceae / Willowherb Fam.
  Origin: North America
 
Callistephus chinensis, China Aster
Callistephus chinensis / China Aster
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
  Origin: China
 
Eschscholzia californica, California Poppy
Eschscholzia californica / California Poppy
Papaveraceae / Poppy Fam.
  Origin: USA
 
Verbascum chaixii forma album, Nettle-Leaved Mullein
Verbascum chaixii forma album / Nettle-Leaved Mullein
Scrophulariaceae / Figwort Fam.
  Origin: Western Mediterranean
 
Verbascum speciosum, Hungarian Mullein
Verbascum speciosum / Hungarian Mullein
Scrophulariaceae / Figwort Fam.
  Origin: Southeast Europe
 
Abutilon theophrasti, Velvet Leaf, China Jute
Abutilon theophrasti / Velvet Leaf, China Jute
Malvaceae / Mallow Fam.
 

 
Urtica membranacea, Large-Leaved Nettle
Urtica membranacea / Large-Leaved Nettle
Urticaceae / Nettle Fam.
 
Large-Leaved Nettle Urtica membranacea which is not rare in the Mediterranean has been found in the City of Mannheim.
 
Caryopteris x clandonensis, Clandon Bluebeard, Blue Mist Spiraea
Caryopteris x clandonensis / Clandon Bluebeard, Blue Mist Spiraea
= Caryopteris incana x mongholica
Verbenaceae / Verbena Fam.
 
At the abandoned switch yard at Mannheim the Bluebeard ran wild from a planting.
 
The plants in the next row have been found on soil depots in Heidelberg-Pfaffengrund on the site of a former freight train terminal. In the last years the first two of these can often be seen as green of traffic islands, the third one is a garden escape.
Scabiosa ochroleuca, Yellow Scabious
Scabiosa ochroleuca / Yellow Scabious
Dipsacaceae / Teasel Fam.
 
 
Calamintha einseleana, Einsele's Calamint
Calamintha einseleana / Einsele's Calamint
Lamiaceae / Mint Fam.
 
 
Clematis tangutica, Golden Clematis
Clematis tangutica / Golden Clematis
Ranunculaceae / Buttercup Fam.
 
 
In this row you can find some introduced Umbellifers.

 
Pimpinella peregrina, Southern Burnet Saxifrage
Pimpinella peregrina / Southern Burnet Saxifrage
Apiaceae / Umbellifers
 
Southern Burnet Saxifrage Pimpinella peregrina, which originates from the western Mediterranean, is currently about to establish in southern Germany.
The Bur Chervil Anthriscus caucalis is not rare on the Friesenheimer Insel near Mannheim. It came from the Mediterranean.
 
Anthriscus caucalis, Bur Chervil
Anthriscus caucalis / Bur Chervil
Apiaceae / Umbellifers
 
The Giant Hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum, which has been introduced from the Caucasus as an ornamental plant, grows taller than a man and if it is touched it can cause burnings on the skin. For this reason people combat against stems of this species which ran wild.
 
Heracleum mantegazzianum, Giant Hogweed
Heracleum mantegazzianum / Giant Hogweed
Apiaceae / Umbellifers
 
In the following three rows you find some introduced Crucifers. The Least Pepperwort Lepidium virginicum is only an example for several Pepperwort species which have been introduced from America.
 
Lepidium virginicum, Least Pepperwort
Lepidium virginicum / Least Pepperwort
Brassicaceae / Crucifers
 

Lunaria annua, Honesty
Lunaria annua / Honesty
Brassicaceae / Crucifers
 
Honesty Lunaria annua, a favourite garden plant, runs often wild. Its origin is Southern Europe.

The Warty Cabbage Bunias orientalis, which has been introduced with seed, came from Armenia and South-East Europe.
 
Bunias orientalis, Warty Cabbage
Bunias orientalis / Warty Cabbage
Brassicaceae / Crucifers
 
Armoracia rusticana, Horse Radish
Armoracia rusticana / Horse Radish
Brassicaceae / Crucifers
 
The Horse Radish Armoracia rusticana is a useful plant which has tun wild. Its native place is the Don - Wolga region of Russia.
The False London Rocket coming from Eastern Europe to Central Asia isn't rare near Mannheim. Its flower starts in may, but most of the plants are in flower in September.
 
Sisymbrium loeselii, False London Rocket
Sisymbrium loeselii / False London Rocket
Brassicaceae / Crucifers
 
Sisymbrium orientale, Eastern Rocket
Sisymbrium orientale / Eastern Rocket
Brassicaceae / Crucifers
 
The Eastern Rocket originates from the Russian Steppe. At the warehouses of the Mannheim Rhine port it has abundant sites.
 
Cardaria draba, Hoary Cress
Cardaria draba / Hoary Cress
Brassicaceae / Crucifers
 
Oben: Die Hoary Cress Cardaria draba wurde seit dem 18. Jahrhundert aus dem Mittelmeergebiet und Asien eingeschleppt. Mit dem Eisenbahnbau im 19. Jahrhundert wurde sie in Mitteleuropa großräumig verbreitet.
Above: The Hoary Cress Cardaria draba has been introduced from the Mediterranean and Asia in the 18th century. It has been widely distributed in Central Europe when the railways were built in the 19th century.
 

 
Lobularia maritima, Sweet Alison
Lobularia maritima / Sweet Alison
Brassicaceae / Crucifers
 
Above: Sweet Alison Lobularia maritima has been imported from the western Mediterranean as a garden flower. At some places it runs wild here.
 

 
Coronopus didymus, Lesser Swine Cress
Coronopus didymus / Lesser Swine Cress
Brassicaceae / Crucifers
 
Above: The Lesser Swine Cress Coronopus didymus originates from South America, but today it's spread more or less world wide.
 
Asclepias syriaca, Purple Silkweed
Asclepias syriaca / Purple Silkweed
Asclepiadaceae / Milkweed Fam.
 
Above: A group of Purple Silkweed Asclepias syriaca, which becomes bigger with the time, can be found on sandy soil near Waghäusel-Wiesental.
Linaria dalmatica, Dalmatian Toadflax
Linaria dalmatica / Dalmatian Toadflax
Scrophulariaceae / Figwort Fam.
 
Above: The more than an meter big Dalmatian Toadflax Linaria dalmatica, which comes from the eastern Mediterranean, colonizes on an inland dune near Seeheim-Jugenheim.
 
Cymbalaria pallida, Italian Toadflax
Cymbalaria pallida / Italian Toadflax
Scrophulariaceae / Figwort Fam.
 
Above: The Italian Toadflax Cymbalaria pallida originates from Central Italy. Recently it has been found at walls of some cemeteries in the Kraichgau.
Nepeta cataria, Catnip
Nepeta cataria / Catnip
Lamiaceae / Mint Fam.
 
 

 

 

 

 

Left: The Catnip Nepeta cataria originates from the pannonian steppe and is widely distributed on the sandy soils of the Upper Rhine valley.
 

Right: Several blue Catnip species which originate from Asia as well as hybrides between these which have been bred by gardeners often run wild in the vicinity of plantings.
Nepeta x faassenii, Catmint
Nepeta x faassenii / Catmint
= Nepeta racemosa x nepetella
Lamiaceae / Mint Fam.
 
 
Lupinus polyphyllus, Garden Lupin
Lupinus polyphyllus / Garden Lupin
Fabaceae / Legumes
 
The Garden Lupin Lupinus polyphyllus originates from the Pacific side of North America. In woods it is grown to feed the deer and to improve the soil with nitrogen, and partly it runs wild.
 
Lupinus luteus, Yellow European Lupin
Lupinus luteus / Yellow European Lupin
Fabaceae / Legumes
 
The smaller Yellow European Lupin Lupinus luteus, which originates from the Mediterranean, I found at Weinheim in the area of a big construction site.
Lathyrus latifolius, Broad-Leaved Everlasting Pea
Lathyrus latifolius / Broad-Leaved Everlasting Pea
Fabaceae / Legumes
 
The Broad-Leaved Everlasting Pea Lathyrus latifolius which comes from the Mediterranean is an ornamental plant which frequently runs wild.
 
Herniaria hirsuta, Hairy Rupture-Wort
Herniaria hirsuta / Hairy Rupture-Wort
Caryophyllaceae / Campion Fam.
 
The Hairy Rupture-Wort Herniaria hirsuta which comes from Asia and the Mediterranean can be found between pavement joints at the Mannheim water tower.
 
Tribulus terrestris, Small Caltrops
Tribulus terrestris / Small Caltrops
Zygophyllaceae / Caltrop Fam.
 
I found a big plant of Small Caltrops Tribulus terrestris, which originates from the Mediterranean, in the Mannheim port.
Tribulus terrestris, Small Caltrops
Tribulus terrestris / Small Caltrops
Zygophyllaceae / Caltrop Fam.
 
Geranium purpureum, Little Robin, Lesser Herb Robert
Geranium purpureum / Little Robin, Lesser Herb Robert
Geraniaceae / Crane's-Bill Fam.
 
The Little Robin Geranium purpureum spreads mainly along railway lines. It originates from the Mediterranean.
 
The Italian Lords and Ladies Arum italicum from the Mediterranean is grown in gardens as an ornamental plant. Recently reports are cumulating that it appears in gardens or on wasteland where it has never been planted. Presumably its red berries are spread by birds. In Ludwigshafen there was a site with hundreds of plants which again disappeared some years later. Arum italicum, Italian Lords and Ladies
Arum italicum / Italian Lords and Ladies
Araceae / Arum Fam.
 
Galium parisiense, Wall Bedstraw
Galium parisiense / Wall Bedstraw
Rubiaceae / Bedstraw Fam.
 
The Wall Bedstraw Galium parisiense, which originates from West and South Europe, has abundant sites in the Mannheim harbors.
 
Onoclea sensibilis, Sensible Fern
Onoclea sensibilis / Sensible Fern
Polypodiaceae / Ferns
 

 

 
There also ferns run wild:
 

 
Left: The Sensible Fern Onoclea sensibilis has been introduced from America. Near Nußloch in the wood a colony is growing, which might have escaped from a garden. It reproduces well, and there are some sporangia.
 

 
Right: Several stems of the Japanese Holly Fern Cyrtomium fortunei, which comes from America and Eastern Asia, are occurring at a wall at the Mannheim Hospital.
Cyrtomium fortunei, Japanese Holly Fern
Cyrtomium fortunei / Japanese Holly Fern
Polypodiaceae / Ferns
 
 
The origin of Evening Primroses is America. The most frequent one here is the Common Evening Primrose Oenothera biennis.
 
Oenothera biennis, Common Evening Primrose
Oenothera biennis / Common Evening Primrose
Onagraceae / Willowherb Fam.
 
Some more rarely in the sand dune regions of the Northern Rhine Valley is Large-Flowered Evening Primrose Oenothera glazioviana, which has bigger blooms and a reddish calyx. There are some more and more rare species, which have been introduced from America. More species have generated in Europe hybridgenously from the American species.
 
Oenothera fallax, Intermediate Evening Primrose
Oenothera fallax / Intermediate Evening Primrose
Onagraceae / Willowherb Fam.
 
The relative small flowered Sandy Evening Primrose Oenothera oakesiana has already been introduced in the 17th century.
 
Oenothera oakesiana, Sandy Evening Primrose
Oenothera oakesiana / Sandy Evening Primrose
Onagraceae / Willowherb Fam.
 
 
Oenothera braunii <b>?</b>, Braun's Evening Primrose
Oenothera braunii ? / Braun's Evening Primrose
Onagraceae / Willowherb Fam.
 
 
Oenothera drawertii, Drawert's Evening Primrose
Oenothera drawertii / Drawert's Evening Primrose
Onagraceae / Willowherb Fam.
 
Oenothera deflexa, Leipzig Evening Primrose
Oenothera deflexa / Leipzig Evening Primrose
Onagraceae / Willowherb Fam.
 
Circaea glabrescens <b>?</b>, Pink Enchanter's Nightshade
Circaea glabrescens ? / Pink Enchanter's Nightshade
Onagraceae / Willowherb Fam.
 
An Enchanter's Nightshade which comes from the Himalayas I found in July 2006 near Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld on soil which had been brought here from another place. In the following year it was disappeared again.
 
The Panicled Willowherb Epilobium brachycarpum settles on sandy areas, e.g. at Mannheim, Ludwigshafen, Reilingen, and Hirschberg. It originates from the Pacific side of North America.
 
Epilobium brachycarpum, Panicled Willowherb, Tall Annual Willowherb
Epilobium brachycarpum / Panicled Willowherb, Tall Annual Willowherb
Onagraceae / Willowherb Fam.
 
Epilobium ciliatum, Fringed Willowherb, American Willowherb
Epilobium ciliatum / Fringed Willowherb, American Willowherb
Onagraceae / Willowherb Fam.
 
 
At edges of paths in the Odenwald the Fringed Willowherb can be found which originates also from America.
 
Potentilla norvegica, Rough Cinquefoil
Potentilla norvegica / Rough Cinquefoil
Rosaceae / Rose Fam.
 
Rough Cinquefoil Potentilla norvegica originates from Eastern Europe and Middle East. I found few stems of the species near the big power stations of Mannheim-Neckarau, but the site has been destroyed a few weeks later. Near Viernheim it can be found in some years.
 
Potentilla intermedia, Downy Cinquefoil, Russian Cinquefoil
Potentilla intermedia / Downy Cinquefoil, Russian Cinquefoil
Rosaceae / Rose Fam.
 
The similar Downy Cinquefoil Potentilla intermedia grew near a soil depot near Viernheim. It originates from Northern Europe and Sibiria. Also near Karlsruhe I managed to find a single plant.
 
Duchesnea indica, Yellow-flowered Strawberry
Duchesnea indica / Yellow-flowered Strawberry
Rosaceae / Rose Fam.
 
The number of sites of the Yellow-flowered Strawberry Duchesnea indica has multiplied within the last years. It had been introduced from East Asia as a garden plant for parks.
 
Centranthus calcitrapae, Annual Valerian
Centranthus calcitrapae / Annual Valerian
Valerianaceae / Valerian Fam.
 
Annual Valerian Centranthus calcitrapae is native in the Mediterranean. I had never heard of an occurrence in Germany when I found it in the Mannheim port in beginning of May 2009. In the same year it has also been found in the Kehl port. Unfortunately during the winter the area in the Mannheim port has been recasted and covered with coarse ballast, so since then it couldn't be be found any more.
 
Oxalis stricta, Upright Oxalis
Oxalis stricta / Upright Oxalis
Oxalidaceae / Wood-Sorrel Fam.
 
Some yellow flowering Oxalis species are coming from different continents. The species on the photo above originates from North America and Eastern Asia.
Also Dillenius' Sorrel Oxalis dillenii from Eastern North America is occurring here, e.g. in Mannheim and Weinheim.
 
Oxalis corniculata, Procumbent Yellow Sorrel
Oxalis corniculata / Procumbent Yellow Sorrel
Oxalidaceae / Wood-Sorrel Fam.
 
The Procumbent Yellow Sorrel, which is widespread in almost all villages of Central Europe today, originates from South America.
Veronica peregrina, American Speedwell
Veronica peregrina / American Speedwell
Scrophulariaceae / Figwort Fam.
 
The American Speedwell Veronica peregrina originates from America, where it grows on the whole continent from Alasca to Tierra del Fuego.
The Slender Speedwell Veronica filiformis originates from Caucasus.
 
Veronica filiformis, Slender Speedwell
Veronica filiformis / Slender Speedwell
Scrophulariaceae / Figwort Fam.
 
Veronica persica, Common Field Speedwell
Veronica persica / Common Field Speedwell
Scrophulariaceae / Figwort Fam.
 
The Common Field Speedwell Veronica persica originates from Asia, and was introduced in Central Europe with ornamental plants about in 1800. In between is is distributed over most parts of the world. It is in flower over almost the whole year except in winter.
 
Gypsophila scorzonerifolia, Garden Baby's Breath
Gypsophila scorzonerifolia / Garden Baby's Breath
Caryophyllaceae / Campion Fam.
 
The Garden Baby's Breath Gypsophila scorzonerifolia comes from Russia and is also naturalized in Eastern Germany. A strong plant grows on wasteland in the Kaiserwört port of Ludwigshafen.
 
Silene coronaria, Rose Campion
Silene coronaria / Rose Campion
Caryophyllaceae / Campion Fam.
 
Rose Campion Silene coronaria has also escaped from gardens. I found it e.g. on the Friesenheim Insel at Mannheim. It's origin is the Mediterranean to Western Asia.
 
Amsinckia calycina, Yellow Burweed, Hairy Fiddleneck
Amsinckia calycina / Yellow Burweed, Hairy Fiddleneck
Boraginaceae / Borrage Fam.
 
Rather rarely, but occasionally, not only in the Kurpfalz but also in sandy areas of Palatina and Rhine-Main region the Yellow Burweed appears, which originats from Southern America. Since some years there is a rich site in Mannheim.
 
Verbena bracteata, Bracted Vervain
Verbena bracteata / Bracted Vervain
Verbenaceae / Verbena Fam.
 
The Bracted Vervain Verbena bracteata comes from America, and is naturalized in the port of Mannheim - Rheinau and has also been found on the Friesenheimer Insel.
 
Verbena bonariensis, Purpletop Vervain
Verbena bonariensis / Purpletop Vervain
Verbenaceae / Verbena Fam.
 
Near Reilingen I found Purpletop Vervain Verbena bonariensis at the edge of a wood. Most probably it originates from garden waste. The plant originates from Brasil and Argentinia.
 
Sideritis montana, Mountain Ironwort
Sideritis montana / Mountain Ironwort
Lamiaceae / Mint Fam.
 
In the port of Mannheim-Rheinau a sizeable colony of Mountain Ironwort Sideritis montana is growing since many years. The plant comes from the Mediterranean.
 
A big population of Swamp Stonecrop Crassula helmsii grows in a pond near Schauernheim in Palatina. It originates from Australia and is used in aquariums.
 
Crassula helmsii, Swamp Stonecrop, New Zealand Pygmyweed
Crassula helmsii / Swamp Stonecrop, New Zealand Pygmyweed
Crassulaceae / Stonecrop Fam.
 
Celastrus orbiculatus, Staff Vine
Celastrus orbiculatus / Staff Vine
Celastraceae / Spindle Fam.
 
The Staff Vine Celastrus orbiculatus, related with our Spindle Euonymus europaeus, is naturalized in the wood in the southern part of nature reserve
Celastrus orbiculatus, Staff Vine
Celastrus orbiculatus / Staff Vine
Celastraceae / Spindle Fam.
 
Pferdstriebduene at Sandhausen. It climbs trees up to 8 meters high. It origin is Eastern Asia.
 

 
Ornithogalum brevistylum, Pyramidal Star of Bethlehem
Ornithogalum brevistylum / Pyramidal Star of Bethlehem
Liliaceae / Lily Fam.
 
 
Muscari armeniacum, Armenian Grape Hyacinth
Muscari armeniacum / Armenian Grape Hyacinth
Liliaceae / Lily Fam.
 
Near Weinheim there are still sites of the Armenian Grape Hyacinth Muscari armeniacum, which came from the Mediterranean, and of the Pyramidal Star of Bethlehem Ornithogalum brevistylum, which originates from South Eastern Europe and Russia. Both had been introduced as ornamental plants in regions with viticulture climate, and can still be found near Weinheim.
 
Hyacinthoides hispanica x non-scripta, Bluebell Hybrid
Hyacinthoides hispanica x non-scripta / Bluebell Hybrid
= Hyacinthoides x massartiana
Liliaceae / Lily Fam.
 
Meconopsis cambrica, Welsh Poppy
Meconopsis cambrica / Welsh Poppy
Papaveraceae / Poppy Fam.
 
Between Gorxheim-Trösel and Unterabtsteinach in the foremost part of the Odenwald grows Welsh Poppy Meconopsis cambrica at a path in the wood. Most probably it is a garden escape.
 
Mimulus cupreus, Red Monkey Flower
Mimulus cupreus / Red Monkey Flower
Scrophulariaceae / Figwort Fam.
 
In the port area of Ludwigshafen a single plant of Mimulus cupreus grew in a small gap of a wall.
 

 
The Four-Leaved Allseed Polycarpon tetraphyllum arrived from the Western Mediterranian. It can already be found in gaps between paving stones e.g. in Speyer and Weinheim-Lützelsachsen.
 
Polycarpon tetraphyllum, Four-Leaved Allseed
Polycarpon tetraphyllum / Four-Leaved Allseed
Caryophyllaceae / Campion Fam.
 
 
Vinca major, Greater Periwinkle
Vinca major / Greater Periwinkle
Apocynaceae / Periwinkle Fam.
 
Often, e.g. above Weinheim, the Greater Periwinkle Vinca major has escaped from gardens. It originates from the Mediterranean.
Near Reilingen and Oftersheim Spiderwort Commelina communis has run wild. Its origin are gardens, too. It had been introduced from East Asia.
 
Commelina communis, Spiderwort
Commelina communis / Spiderwort
Commelinaceae / Spiderwort Fam.
 
Claytonia perfoliata, Miner's Lettuce
Claytonia perfoliata / Miner's Lettuce
Portulacaceae / Purslane Fam.
 
Miner's Lettuce Claytonia perfoliata, which was cultivated as vegetables, and which ran wild in regions with sandy soil which is the case in parts of the 'Kurpfalz', originates from the western part of North America.
 
Physalis peruviana, Cape Gooseberry
Physalis peruviana / Cape Gooseberry
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
 
Tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, Marrow Cucurbita pepo, more rarely also Musk Melon Cucumis melo and Cape Gooseberry
 
Lycopersicon esculentum, Tomato
Lycopersicon esculentum / Tomato
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
 
Physalis peruviana are growing on the low meadows along the Neckar river at Mannheim. The seed had been ashored at high water.
 
Cucurbita pepo, Marrow
Cucurbita pepo / Marrow
Cucurbitaceae / Cucumber Fam.
 
 
Cucumis melo, Musk Melon
Cucumis melo / Musk Melon
Cucurbitaceae / Cucumber Fam.
 
 
Citrullus lanatus, Water Melon
Citrullus lanatus / Water Melon
Cucurbitaceae / Cucumber Fam.
 
Melissa officinalis, Balm
Melissa officinalis / Balm
Lamiaceae / Mint Fam.
 
Top right: Several plants of the Water Melon Citrullus lanatus, of which the biggest one brought even fruits, have been found at the Rhine shore at Mannheim.
 

 

Left: A typical example for several herbs, teas and aromatic plants, which have been introduced from the Mediterranean or the Orient and which sometimes run wild, is Balm Melissa officinalis.
 

 

Right: On waste land of the Friesenheimer Insel at Mannheim young plants of the Common Lavender Lavandula angustifolia habe been found. They might have reproduced in the years with mild winters.
 

 

Below: I found a small group of Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum on the Friesenheimer Insel in Mannheim at the Rhine dam. It originates from the Central Asian steppe. Formerly the plant has been grown because its seed contains starch. But because it is frost-sensitive it was ousted by the cereals.
 
Lavandula angustifolia, Common Lavender
Lavandula angustifolia / Common Lavender
Lamiaceae / Mint Fam.
 
 
Cannabis sativa, Hemp
Cannabis sativa / Hemp
Cannabaceae / Hop Fam.
 
Hemp Cannabis sativa has been introduced from the Orient in the 19th century for the textile industry because of its fibres. Later it has been forbidden due to its intoxicating effect. The few plants, which I found at different sites, can be
Fagopyrum esculentum, Buckwheat
Fagopyrum esculentum / Buckwheat
Polygonaceae / Knotweed Fam.
 
 

 
originated from hemp corns out of food for birds. Most of these were growing on soil which had recently been transferred from building grounds, another one at the Rhine shore.
Actinidia deliciosa, Kiwi Fruit, Chinese Gooseberry
Actinidia deliciosa / Kiwi Fruit, Chinese Gooseberry
Actinidiaceae / Kiwi Fam.
 
At a path in the forest near Heidelberg a Kiwi plant has been found.

 

Almost all of the often less attractive, green flowering Pigweeds (genus Amaranthus) originate from America:
 
Amaranthus retroflexus, Common Pigweed
Amaranthus retroflexus / Common Pigweed
Amaranthaceae / Amaranth Fam.
 
Amaranthus blitoides, Prostrate Pigweed
Amaranthus blitoides / Prostrate Pigweed
Amaranthaceae / Amaranth Fam.
 
Amaranthus blitum subsp. emarginatus, Pigweed
Amaranthus blitum subsp. emarginatus / Pigweed
Amaranthaceae / Amaranth Fam.
 
There are also Amaranth species which are attractive in terms of color:
 
The Red Pigweed Amaranthus cruentus is cultivated in gardens as ornamental plant. On a soil depot near Viernheim it had been running wild, and can also be found in Mannheim at the Neckar.
 
Rightmost: The Pendant Pigweed Amaranthus caudatus runs often wild out of gardens and can be found at different locations of the region.
Amaranthus cruentus, Red Pigweed
Amaranthus cruentus / Red Pigweed
Amaranthaceae / Amaranth Fam.
 
Amaranthus caudatus, Pendant Pigweed, Love Lies Bleeding
Amaranthus caudatus / Pendant Pigweed, Love Lies Bleeding
Amaranthaceae / Amaranth Fam.
 
 
Dysphania pumilio, Clammy Goosefoot
Dysphania pumilio / Clammy Goosefoot
Chenopodiaceae / Goosefoot Fam.
 

 

 

 
Left: The Clammy Goosefoot Dysphania pumilio has been introduced from Australia. In Europe it grows only in warm regions on sandy soil.
 

 

 
Right: The Sticky Goosefoot Dysphania botrys came from Southern Europe and Asia. A rich site in Mannheim has been a former cole store at the port.
Dysphania botrys, Sticky Goosefoot, Jerusalem Oak
Dysphania botrys / Sticky Goosefoot, Jerusalem Oak
Chenopodiaceae / Goosefoot Fam.
 
Grasses and rushes, which had been introduced as useful or ornamental plants, ran also wild:
Tragus racemosus, Spike Burr Grass
Tragus racemosus / Spike Burr Grass
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
Left: The Spike Burr Grass Tragus racemosus originates from the Mediterranean. Near Mannheim on inland dunes it is widely distributed in between.
 
Phalaris arundinacea var. picta, Variegated Ribbon Grass, Gardener's Garters
Phalaris arundinacea var. picta / Variegated Ribbon Grass, Gardener's Garters
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
I found the ornamental grass Variegated Ribbon Grass Phalaris arundinacea var. picta at two locations in the wood of the Odenwald.
Lolium multiflorum, Italian Rye-Grass
Lolium multiflorum / Italian Rye-Grass
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
The Italian Rye-Grass Lolium multiflorum is at home in Southern Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia. In Central Europe it is grown to feed animals. Sometimes it runs wild, but only temporarely.
 
Panicum capillare, Witchgrass
Panicum capillare / Witchgrass
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
The most frequent of the millets which came from America is the Witchgrass Panicum capillare.
Panicum hillmanii, Hillman's Millet
Panicum hillmanii / Hillman's Millet
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
Hillman's Millet Panicum hillmanii is similar to the native Witchgrass Panicum capillare, but it has dark brown instead of light beige seed. It orininates from America as the similar but more frequent Riparian Millet Panicum barbipulvinatum (right photo).
 
Panicum barbipulvinatum, Riparian Millet
Panicum barbipulvinatum / Riparian Millet
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
 
Bromus carinatus, Mountain Brome, California Brome
Bromus carinatus / Mountain Brome, California Brome
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
At the edge of a field near Weinheim Mountain Brome Bromus carinatus has appeared, which had been introduced from America, and which also earlier rarely had been found in various regions of Germany.
 
Phalaris canariensis, Canary Grass
Phalaris canariensis / Canary Grass
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
Canary Grass Phalaris canariensis has been found at a slope near the Mannheim Hospital in abundance.
 
Nassella tenuissima, Mexican Feather Grass
Nassella tenuissima / Mexican Feather Grass
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
Near the tower buildings at the Northern Neckar shore in Mannheim Mexican Feather Grass Nassella tenuissima has been found run wild, an undemanding grass which is grown in gardens for ornament.
 
Bromus catharticus, Rescue Brome
Bromus catharticus / Rescue Brome
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
The Rescue Brome which has been introduced from South America, can sometimes be found on agricultural or waste land.
 
Sporobolus vaginiflorus, Poverty Grass, Sheathed Dropseed
Sporobolus vaginiflorus / Poverty Grass, Sheathed Dropseed
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
Poverty Grass Sporobolus vaginiflorus which originates from the USA is abundantly available in the former Taylor Barracks, a discontinued US casern at Mannheim. Currently (2017) the Taylor Barracks area is built-up, and it is in question whether the grass will remain. Along motorways in Northern Italy, Slovenia, Austria and Switzerland the grass has been found since tens of years.
 
Sorghum bicolor, Great Millet
Sorghum bicolor / Great Millet
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
 
 
Carex grayi, Gray's Sedge, Mace Sedge
Carex grayi / Gray's Sedge, Mace Sedge
Cyperaceae / Sedge Fam.
  Gray's Sedge which originates from North America and which is cultivated as an ornamental plant because of its mace-like fruits, ran wild in the narrow riparian wood at the Rehbach near Rheingönheim.
 
Juncus tenuis, Slender Rush
Juncus tenuis / Slender Rush
Juncaceae / Rush Fam.
 
The Slender Rush Juncus tenuis, which has been introduced from the eastern part of America, is not rare.
 

 
Daphne laureola, Spurge Laurel
Daphne laureola / Spurge Laurel
Thymelaeaceae / Daphne Fam.
 
 

 

 

 

Left:
At the Gaisberg above Heidelberg the Spurge Laurel Daphne laureola might have been introduced about hundred years ago when foreign trees were planted for the Arboretum.
 

 

Right:
In the Exotenwald (forest of foreign trees) at Weinheim Japanese Avens Geum japonicum is growing together with the native Wood Avens Geum urbanum. Geum japonicum has bigger leaves and a stocky inflorescence.
Geum japonicum, Japanese Avens
Geum japonicum / Japanese Avens
Rosaceae / Rose Fam.
 
 
Imported garden bushes have run wild in the 'Kurpfalz', too.
Sorbaria sorbifolia, Ural False Spiraea
Sorbaria sorbifolia / Ural False Spiraea
Rosaceae / Rose Fam.
  Found near Schriesheim;   Origin: North Siberia
 
Spiraea thunbergii, Thunberg's Meadowsweet, Baby's Breath Spirea
Spiraea thunbergii / Thunberg's Meadowsweet, Baby's Breath Spirea
Rosaceae / Rose Fam.
 
Parthenocissus inserta, False Virginia Creeper
Parthenocissus inserta / False Virginia Creeper
Vitaceae / Grape-Vine Fam.
  Found near Reilingen;   Origin: Eastern Asia
 
Acer ginnala, Amur Maple
Acer ginnala / Amur Maple
Aceraceae / Maple Fam.
 
Many plants of Common Hackberry Celtis occidentalis can be found run wild at Karlsruhe, now I found it at Mannheim, too. It originates from North America.
 
Celtis occidentalis, Common Hackberry
Celtis occidentalis / Common Hackberry
Ulmaceae / Elm Fam.
 
Cercis siliquastrum, Judas Tree
Cercis siliquastrum / Judas Tree
Fabaceae / Legumes
  This tree, which comes from the Mediterranean and Western Asia, has run wild at the river shore of the Rhine at Ludwigshafen.
 
The bushes and trees of the next rows came from China and Eastern Asia, and ran sometimes wild on waste land, e.g. at railway stations.
Ailanthus altissima, Tree of Heaven
Ailanthus altissima / Tree of Heaven
Simaroubaceae / Tree-of-Heaven Fam.
 
Buddleja davidii, Butterfly Bush
Buddleja davidii / Butterfly Bush
Buddlejaceae / Butterfly Bush Fam.
 
Paulownia tomentosa, Princess Tree, Foxglove Tree
Paulownia tomentosa / Princess Tree, Foxglove Tree
Scrophulariaceae / Figwort Fam.
 
Cotoneaster horizontalis, Wall Cotoneaster
Cotoneaster horizontalis / Wall Cotoneaster
Rosaceae / Rose Fam.
 
Forsythia x intermedia, Golden Bell
Forsythia x intermedia / Golden Bell
= Forsythia suspensa x viridissima
Oleaceae / Ash Fam.
 
 
Cornus alba agg., Red-Barked Dogwood, Siberian Dogwood
Cornus alba agg. / Red-Barked Dogwood, Siberian Dogwood
Cornaceae / Dogwood Fam.
 
Cotoneaster sargentii, Scarlet Leader Willowleaf
Cotoneaster sargentii / Scarlet Leader Willowleaf
Rosaceae / Rose Fam.
 
 
Elaeagnus angustifolia, Narrow-Leaved Oleaster, Russian Olive
Elaeagnus angustifolia / Narrow-Leaved Oleaster, Russian Olive
Elaeagnaceae / Sea-Buckthorn Fam.
 
Kerria japonica, Kerrie
Kerria japonica / Kerrie
Rosaceae / Rose Fam.
  Found near Reilingen;   Origin: Eastern Asia
 
Koelreuteria paniculata, Golden Rain Tree
Koelreuteria paniculata / Golden Rain Tree
Sapindaceae / Golden-Rain Tree Fam.
 
 
The bushes and trees shown in the next two rows have been imported from North America. Sometimes they run wild here.
Rhus typhina, Stag's-Horn Sumach
Rhus typhina / Stag's-Horn Sumach
Anacardiaceae / Sumach Fam.
 
Symphoricarpos albus, Snowberry
Symphoricarpos albus / Snowberry
Caprifoliaceae / Honeysuckle Fam.
 
 
Mahonia aquifolium, Oregon Grape
Mahonia aquifolium / Oregon Grape
Berberidaceae / Barberry Fam.
 
Robinia pseudoacacia, False Acacia
Robinia pseudoacacia / False Acacia
Fabaceae / Legumes
 
Very frequent at wood edges.
Amorpha fruticosa, Desert False Indigo
Amorpha fruticosa / Desert False Indigo
Fabaceae / Legumes
 
Desert False Indigo Amorpha fruticosa originates from North America. Found in Mannheim on the Friesenheimer Insel.
 
Prunus serotina, Rum Drupes
Prunus serotina / Rum Drupes
Rosaceae / Rose Fam.
 
A rather frequent bush, e.g. in the 'Viernheim Heide' northwest of Viernheim.
 
Catalpa bignonioides, Common Catalpa, Indian Bean Tree
Catalpa bignonioides / Common Catalpa, Indian Bean Tree
Bignoniaceae / Catalpa Fam.
 
Physocarpus opulifolius, Common Ninebark
Physocarpus opulifolius / Common Ninebark
Rosaceae / Rose Fam.
 
Acer saccharinum, Silver Maple
Acer saccharinum / Silver Maple
Aceraceae / Maple Fam.
 
From eastern North America it was introduced as a tree for parks. It ran wild e.g. in a nature reserve at Hemsbach and along the Neckar near Mannheim.
 
Acer negundo, Ash-Leaf Elder
Acer negundo / Ash-Leaf Elder
Aceraceae / Maple Fam.
 
The Ash-Leaf Elder, which has been introduced from America in the 17th century, dominates more and more the riparian forests of the Upper Rhine -->
 
Acer negundo, Ash-Leaf Elder
Acer negundo / Ash-Leaf Elder
Aceraceae / Maple Fam.
 
Valley, e.g. the Reissinsel at Mannheim, because it reproduces more and grows faster than the native White Willow.
 
Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Green Ash
Fraxinus pennsylvanica / Green Ash
Oleaceae / Ash Fam.
 
In nature reserve Kühkopf-Knoblochsaue the Green Ash had already to be combated, because it also grows faster than the native trees of riparian forests.
 
Taxus baccata, Yew
Taxus baccata / Yew
Taxaceae / Yew Fam.
 
 

 

 

 

 
Also conifers as Yew or Oriental Arbor-Vitae are running wild out of seed which comes from planted trees.
Platycladus orientalis, Oriental Arbor-Vitae
Platycladus orientalis / Oriental Arbor-Vitae
Cupressaceae / Cypresse Fam.
 
 
Several water plants are neophytes, too:
Elodea canadensis, Canadian Waterweed
Elodea canadensis / Canadian Waterweed
Hydrocharitaceae / Frogbit Fam.
 
 
Elodea nuttallii, Nuttall's Waterweed
Elodea nuttallii / Nuttall's Waterweed
Hydrocharitaceae / Frogbit Fam.
 
 
Vallisneria spiralis, Tape Grass
Vallisneria spiralis / Tape Grass
Hydrocharitaceae / Frogbit Fam.
 
 
Azolla filiculoides, Water Fern
Azolla filiculoides / Water Fern
Azollaceae / Water Fern Fam.
 
 

 

 
Naturally this list of neophytic plants of the 'Kurpfalz' can't be complete. It will be continued on occasion. Information on the neophytes I took mainly out of the 8 volume book edition 'Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Baden-Wüttembergs' as well as from several web pages. Baden-Württemberg is the most south-western part of Germany.
 
There are also similar but less extensive sites on adjoining regions:
Some neophytes in (Southern) Baden,
Some neophytes in Rheinland-Pfalz,
Some neophytes in Hesse.
 
On neophytes of some foreign regions small web sites are also available:
Some neophytes in Western Ireland,
Some neophytes in Northern Spain.  
 

Nach oben
To top
 
Startseite
Start page
 
Inhalt
Contents
 
Orchideen
Orchids
 
Andere Pflanzen
Other Plants
 
Pflanzen nach Familien
Plants acc. to Families
 
.. Verwandtschaft
.. Relationship
 
.. wiss. Namen
.. Scientific Names
 
.. deut. Namen
.. German Names
 
.. engl. Namen
.. English Names
 
.. Art-Namen
.. Specific Names
 
.. Blütenbau
.. Flower Anatomy
 
.. Blütenfarben
.. Bloom Colors
 
.. Blattform
.. Leaf Form
 
.. Regionen
.. Regions
 
.. Aufn.-Monat
.. Photo Month
 
.. Früchten + Samen
.. Fruits + Seed
 
.. Wurzeln + Knollen
.. Roots + Bulbs
 
Bäume
Trees
 
Sträucher
Bushes
 
Wasser-Pfl.
Water Plants
 
Kletter-/Schling-Pfl.
Climbers + Twiners
 
Nutz-Pfl.
Useful Pl.
 
Zier-Pflanzen
Ornamental Pl.
 
Farb-Var.
Color Var.
 
Mehrere Kriterien
Multiple Criteria
 
Biotope + Gruppen
Biotopes + Groups
 
Botan.Links
Botan.Links
 
6-Oct-2017

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Copyright: Use of the images and texts only with author's written permission.