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My favorite botanical Links
This is a list of links, which I already used to determine some of my plant photos, resp. of which I think, that they could be helpful, if I will visit the corresponding regions. Preferred are sites with a certain completeness for their region.
 
North Eur.   F   E   I   GR   East Eur.   TR   
Fam.   Mosses   Lichens   IPNI   Forums   Maps
 
 
Central Europe + Alps:
 
Flora Web  
http://www.floraweb.de/pflanzenarten/artensteckbriefe.html
Photos and short descriptions, as well as distribution maps and information on endangering and protection of the flora of Germany. In german language.
 
Florenliste von Deutschland  
http://www.kp-buttler.de/florenliste/index.htm
Flora list for Germany, the single Bundeslaender are also selectible.
 
Botanik im Bild: Flora von Österreich  
http://flora.nhm-wien.ac.at/Seiten-Allgemein/Pflanzenfamilien.html
Flora of Austria with mostly very good photos and in some cases short descriptions of the plants. Issued by the Natural History Museum of Vienna. In german language.
 
Swiss Web Flora  
http://www.wsl.ch/land/products/webflora/welcome-de.ehtml
Flora of Switzerland with distribution maps and small photos of the plants, as well as information on endangering. The photos are from Konrad Lauber, who worked on the book editions 'Flora Helvetica' and 'Flora Alpina', too. The site is issued by the institute WSL of the swiss university. In german, english, french and italian languages.
 
Botanischer Informationsknoten Bayern  
http://daten.bayernflora.de/de/info_pflanzen.php
Informations on distribution and endangering of the plants which are occurring the Bundesland Bavaria in the South-East of Germany.
 
Flora Baden-Württemberg  
http://www.flora.naturkundemuseum-bw.de/
The 8-volume book edition 'Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Baden-Württembergs' (The ferns and vascular plants of Baden-Württemberg / South-West Germany) belongs to the literature, which I use for plant determination also far beyond Baden-Württemberg. For almost all plants the books contain distribution maps, which are always actualized on this Web page. Moreover maps for new species have been provided. Since 2012 also single findings and finders per quadrant can be obtained.
 
Pflanzenwelt des Landkreises Karlsruhe  
http://worldplants.webarchiv.kit.edu/KA/
Data base from Michael Hassler and Bernd Schmitt with more than 1900 vascular plants of the region of Karlsruhe in South-West Germany in about 5500 usually very good photos. Moreover determination attributes, ecological site characteristics, and regional sites etc. are contained, too.
 
Flora von Deutschland  
http://worldplants.webarchiv.kit.edu/D/
Data base from Michael Hassler and Bernd Schmitt with about 4500 vascular plants of Germany, most of these with good photos. Moreover information is e.g. distribution and endangering. A speciality are photos of many of the difficultly determinable clans of e.g. Ranunculus auricomus agg., Sorbus hybrids, and Brambles (Rubus) of Germany.
 
Flora der Alpen  
http://worldplants.webarchiv.kit.edu/alpen/
Data base from Michael Hassler and Bernd Schmitt with more than 4700 vascular plants of the Alpes, with good photos.
 
Flora-de  
http://www.flora-de.de/
The author Thomas Meyer built a determination key based on photos for the plants of Germany up. In german language. Successor of the site 'Blumen in Schwaben'.
 
Fotografien von Wildpflanzen  
http://www.flogaus-faust.de/
Photos of more than 1000 central european plants from Robert Flogaus-Faust, which are supplemented by plant descriptions from old botanical books. In german language.
 
Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen  
http://www.bvnh.de/bnh/
Under 'Hessenliste' a list of the plants of the German Bundesland Hessen can be downloaded (3 MB). Under 'Bestimmungshilfen' there are keys for determination of difficult species and subspecies. Under 'Fundmeldungen' findings of rare plants of Hessen. In german language.
 
Flora Oberfranken Online  
http://flora-oberfranken.de/html/flora_vegetation.html
A private site containing datasheets on the plants of Oberbayern (southern central part of Bavaria), in many cases with photos.
 
Herbarium Christian Weingart  
http://ndz.pollichia.de/datenbank/form.php?table_name=Herbarium_C_Wein . . .
List of the 5271 herbarium samples of Christian Weingart from Palatina, with nearest village resp. number of topographic map. The herbarium is stored in the museum for nature studies of Pollichia at Bad Dürkheim, Palatina, Germany.
 
Natur in NRW  
http://natur-in-nrw.de/HTML/Artenlisten/pflanzen.html
List of plants occurring in the German 'Bundesland' Nordrhein-Westfalen, which is located about in the middle of Western Germany. There are also lists on mosses, lichens, mushrooms, animals, etc.
 
Bestimmungshilfe Thüringen  
http://www1.uni-jena.de/tbg/tbg-Dateien/Bestimmungshilfen/Bestimmungsh . . .
Images of details as aid for the determination of difficult species of the flora of Thüringen (Central Germany), a site of the botanical society of Thüringen. In german language.
 
Dr. Thomas Götz - Homepage -  
http://www.tkgoetz.homepage.t-online.de/botanik.html
Lists of plants from trips not only in the range of the Alps between France and Slovenia, but also from South Spain, the Pyrenees, Massif Central, Central Italy, and Istria. Moreover the author is buildung up a determination key in german language of all plants of the Alps and surrounding regions.
 
Société de Botanique de France: Voyage d'étude en Bavière  
http://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/sbf/activ_baviere.htm
Photo report of a botanical journey to Bavaria, from a Xerobrometum near Würzburg to the German Alps.
 
Schmitzens Botanikseite  
http://www.schmitzens-botanikseite.de/soz.htm
Joachim Schmitz presents the plant societies of Rheinland and Eifel (Western Germany), where rather rare plants are occurring, too. In german language.
 
Flora von Bochum  
http://www.botanik-jagel.de/FloraBochum.html
Plant list of the city of Bochum in the Ruhr region from Armin Jagel. Sites are mentioned, and in many cases there are links to photos. In german language.
 
Exkursion Rhön  
http://www.botanik-steinburg.de/Dateien_11/Artenliste_Exkursion_Rhoen_ . . .
List of plants and mushrooms which have been found during an excursion in the Rhön mountains (Hesse and Thuringe, Central Germany) in July 2011. In german language.
 
Aquatische Neophyten in Deutschland  
http://www.aquatischeneophyten.de/index.html
Descriptions, information on distribution and origin, and also control of about 20 aquatic neophytes in Germany, which often ran wild from breeding in aquariums. In german language.
 
Flora des Emslands  
http://flora-emslandia.de/wildblumen.htm
Incomplete survey on green (non-woody) plants of Emsland region (Northern Germany)
 
Pflanzen und Pilze in und um Schleswig-Holstein  
http://jule.pflanzenbestimmung.de
Pages with photos of plants and mushrooms, mainly from the most northern part of Germany, but also from trips to other parts of Europe. Beneath higher plants there are ferns, mosses, algae, lichens, and several kinds of Fungi. A part of the planned pages isn't finished yet.
 
Pflanzen von Dessau und Umgebung  
http://www.willing-botanik.de/
Photos of plants and biotopes from the region of Dessau, Scahsen-Anhalt, Eastern Germany by E. R.Willing.
 
Plants from Mönchgut / Rügen Island (Germany)  
http://www.plant-pictures.com/index.htm
Plant photos from the island of Rügen (North-East Germany) from Thomas Schoepke's page 'Plant Image Gallery'.
 
Ex Situ Erhaltung  
http://www.ex-situ-erhaltung.de/pflanzenarten/a/index.php?id_art=3
Informations on conserving gardens and resettlement of threatened species in Germany.
 
Verspreidingsatlas NL  
http://www.verspreidingsatlas.nl
Dstribution maps of plants, mosses, lichens, mushrooms etc. for the Netherlands.
 
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven: Plant Guide  
http://www.kuleuven-kortrijk.be/bioweb/?page=guide
Photos of more than 900 plants from the campus of the catholic university of Leuven (Louvain). The plant names are given in 5 languages.
 
Icones Florae Germanicae et Helveticae  
http://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/ing/Volumenes.php?Libro=908
Many-volume work with short descriptions in german language and colored drawings of the plants (in the newer volumes partly rather over-colored), issued by the botanist H. G. Reichenbach from Dresden between 1834 and 1914. The worked area is Central Europa and its peripherals as parts of Northern Italy, Alsace, Belgium, Netherlands, Danmark, Prussia, as well as the Eastern Regions of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire as e.g. Moravia, Hungary, Istria, Dalmatia, Transsilvania, etc. In each volume the index is found between the text part and the colored images, the corresponding page numbers are given below. The scanned books can be found in the web sites of the Botanical Garden of Madrid (link above) and of the Biodiversity Heritage Library, at both few but different volumes are missing.
Bot. Gar. Madrid:     Vol. 1: Poaceae (Index 47 - 50)         Vol. 1 (2. Auflage / 2nd edition): Poaceae (Index 72 - 80)         Vol. 2: Brassicac. (Index 23 - 31)
  Vol. 3: Papaveraceae, Violaceae, Cistaceae, Ranunculaceae         Vol. 4: Ranunculaceae (Cont., Index 29ff incl. Vol. 3)
  Vol. 5: Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, Aceraceae, Malvaceae, Geraniaceae, Oxalidaceae, Caryophillaceae
  Vol. 6: Caryophillaceae (Cont.), Celastraceae, Tiliaceae, Linaceae, Hypericaceae (Index 73 - 84 incl. Vol. 5)
  Vol. 7: Isoetae, Zosteraceae, Araceae, Potamogetonac., Alismataceae, Hydrocharit., Poaceae (Index 39 - 40)         Vol. 8: Cyperaceae (Index 46 - 50)
  Vol. 9: Typhaceae, Iridaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Juncaceae (Index 23 - 24)         Vol. 10: Juncaceae (Cont.), Liliaceae (Index 33 - 34)
  Vol. 11: Nadelbäume / Conifers, Ephedraceae, Cytinaceae, Santalaceae, Eleagnaceae, Thymelaeaceae, Salicaceae, Myricaceae (Index 31 - 32)
  Vol. 12: Betulac., Fagaceae, Urticaceae, Moraceae, Aristoloch., Dipsaceae, Valerianac. (Index 32 - 34)         Vol. 13 & 14: Orchidaceae (Index 187 - 194)
  Vol. 15: Asteraceae (Distel-ähnliche / Thistle-like, Index 100 - 106)         Vol. 16: Asteraceae (Astern-ähnliche / Aster-like, Index 77 - 86)
  Vol. 17: Gentianac., Apocyn., Asclep., Oleac., Styrac., Ebenac., Aquifol., Primul., Plantagin., Plumbac., Pyrolac., Ericac., Caprifol., Rubiac. (Idx.104-113)
  Vol. 18: Lamiaceae, Verbenaceae, Boraginaceae, Polemoniaceae, Convolvulaceae, Polygalaceae (Index 93 - 103)
  Vol. 19 part 1: Campanulaceae, Lobelia, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Picris- & Xanthium-ähnliche / Picris & Xanthium-like, Index 124 - 135)
  Vol. 19 part 2: Asteraceae (Hieracium, Index 325 - 341)         Vol. 20: Solanaceae, Scrophul., Orobanch., Acanthac., Globulariac., Lentibul. (Idx.119-125)
  Vol. 21: Apiaceae (Index 101 - 108)         Vol. 22: Fabaceae (Index 211 - 230)
  Vol. 23: Onagraceae, Hippuridaceae, Lythraceae, Crassulaceae, Saxifragaceae, Adoxaceae, Araliaceae (Index 77 - 83) nicht vorhanden / not avilable
  Vol. 24: Loranthaceae, Cornaceae, Spiraea, Philadelphaceae, Aizoaceae, Thelygonaceae, Polygonaceae, Chenopodiaceae (Index 188 - 213)
 Biodiversity Heritage Library:     Vol. 1 (2nd edition)         Vol. 2         Vol. 3         Vol. 4         Vol. 5         Vol. 6         Vol. 7         Vol. 8
  Vol. 9         Vol. 10         Vol. 11         Vol. 12         Vol. 13 & 14: nicht vorhanden / not available         Vol. 15         Vol. 16
  Vol. 17 & 18: nicht vorhanden / not available         Vol. 19 part 1         Vol. 19 part 2         Vol. 20         Vol. 21         Vol. 22         Vol. 23         Vol. 24
 
 
Northern Europe:
 
List of all British Plants 2010  
http://www.thewildflowersociety.com/wfs_list_of_all_plants/main_menu_2 . . .
List of the plants of Great Gritain.
 
Wild Flowers  
http://www.botanicalkeys.co.uk/flora/
Keys for plants occurring in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
 
National Biodiversity Network  
http://www.nbn.org.uk/
Distribution maps and other information on plants and animals in Great Britain and Ireland, as well as information on nature reserves. The site has been re-organized after I had detected it, I don't know whether the plant data sheets are still available.
 
Wild Plants of the British Isles  
http://www.ukwildflowers.com/
Photos of British plants from Dr Peter Llewellyn.
 
Interactive Flora of NW Europe  
http://wbd.etibioinformatics.nl/bis/flora.php?menuentry=inleiding
Short descriptions of more than 3500 plants of the British Islands, a site from authors from the Netherlands.
 
The Cleveland Coast Flora  
http://barlow.me.uk/clevelandnats/Coastal Flora.pdf
PDF file containing biotope descriptions and plant lists of the coastal flora of Cleveland, North-East England.
 
First Hunt in North Wales  
http://www.thewildflowersociety.com/wfs_report_menus/wfs_First_Hunt_20 . . .
Report of very early excursion in North Wales in beginning of march 2009. More excursion reports can be found under 'Reports' on the web site of 'The Wild Flower Society' of Great Britain.
 
Nethy Bridge Checklist of Vascular Plants  
http://www.bsbi.org.uk/Nethy_Bridge_Checklist_2010.pdf
List of plants around Nethy Bridge, Scotland, 2010.
 
Skye Flora  
http://www.plant-identification.co.uk/skye/index.htm
List and photos of the plants on the Isle of Skye.
 
Flora of Northern Ireland  
http://www.habitas.org.uk/flora/
Distribution maps and photos of plants of Northern Ireland, issued by the Environment and Heritage Service. Almost all of the plants, which I saw in western Ireland, are contained, too.
 
Wildflowers of Ireland  
http://www.wildflowersofireland.net/index.php
Private web site from Zoe Devlin with photos and texts on more than 500 plants from Ireland. Excellente navigation according to names, colors, and families. Time of flowering is also given.
 
Lists of Irish plants  
http://www.botanicgardens.ie/herb/census/lists.htm
Different plant lists of Ireland, including mosses and characees, also lists of mushrooms and algae.
 
Census Catalogue of the Flora of Ireland  
http://www.botanicgardens.ie/herb/census/newcensus.htm
The list of the plants of Irland with sites is currently built up, but only few and only small families are available yet.
 
Checklista över Nordens Kärlväxter  
http://www2.nrm.se/fbo/chk/chk3.htm
List of Nordic plants, i.e. those of Danmark (incl. Faroe Islands, without Greenland), Finland, Iceland, Norge, and Sweden. A site of the Museum for Natural History of Stockholm.
 
Den Virtuella Floran  
http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/welcome.html
The plants of Sweden, sorted according to several criteria. A site of the Museum for Natural History of Stockholm.
 
Herbarium Bergen  
http://gbif.no/uib/
Photos of herbarium specimens of nordic flora iofthe university museum of Bergen / Norway.
 
Botanische Exkursionen nach Schwedisch-Lappland  
http://www.saxifraga.de/sapmi/llartenlisten_gp.html
Plant list from excursions of the Tübingen University (Germany) to Swedish Lapland.
 
Exkursion till Älgön  
http://www.bfig.se/Algon2009b.html
Excursion of university of Gothenburg to the island of Älgön, located north of the city in Bohuslän province, with photos of about 40 plants.
 
Henriette's Plant Name Search  
http://www.henriettes-herb.com/plants.html
Plant names in several languages, and more or less homoeopathical oriented assortment of more than 7000 plant photos, many of these taken in botanical gardens. A page from Finland.
 
Plants (funet.fi)  
http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/plants/
Photos of plants, mainly from Northern and Eastern Europe. The plant names are given in several languages. The site is part of the university net of Finland.
 
Plants on Iceland  
http://www.iceland-nh.net/plants/
Brief descriptions and small photos of some plants of Iceland.
 
Flora of Iceland  
http://www.floraislands.is/plantlist.htm
Check list of the plants of Iceland.
 
Pflanzenliste Grönland 2009  
http://www.tuhlig.de/greenland2009/index.php?page=3-2-pflanzenliste
Plant list of an excursion to Greenland in 2009 of the University of Tübingen (South Germany). There are also geologic and glaciologic (i.e. on glaciers) themes on that excursion. In German and English languages.
 
 
Be - Ne - Lux:
 
FLORON Verspreidingsatlas Planten  
http://www.verspreidingsatlas.nl/planten
Distribution maps of the plants of the Netherlands.
 
Alien Plants of Belgium  
http://alienplantsbelgium.be/
Keys of the neophytes of Belgium.
 
 
France:
 
Photo Flora (Benoit Bock)  
http://photoflora.free.fr/
About 90000 images of most of the plants of France and increasingly of other parts of Europe, e.g. from the neighbor countries Spain and Italy. Compiled by Benoit Bock. If you click in one of the genus pages on the numbers in front of the species names or in a photo page on the plant name you reach the distribution map of the corresponding plant in Tela-Botanica:
 
Tela-Botanica  
http://www.tela-botanica.org/papyrus.php
Distribution maps and more information on the flora of France incl. Corsica.
 
Index Synonymique de la Flore de France (ISFF)  
http://www2.dijon.inra.fr/flore-france/
Scientific names and synonyms of the French flora.
 
Banque de données Botaniques et Ecologiques  
http://jupiter.u-3mrs.fr/~msc41www/photohtm/LIENPLAN.HTM
Numerous photos of the flora of France, with partly old-fashioned naming. The link above is sorted according to genera. According to families. Some of the geographic assortments.
 
Flore de France  
http://books.google.de/books?id=ffwnAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Fl . . .
Flora of France including Corsica from 1848 from M. Grenier and M. Godron. It contains verbal descriptions of plants in French language, systematically sorted from Ranunculaceae to Apiaceae. The index is in the rear part on pages 763 to 766.
Volume 2-1 from 1850 contains the plant families Araliaceae to Globulariaceae. Index on pages 757 to 760.
Copies of volumes 2-2 and 3 I couldn't find in the web yet.
 
Catalogue des taxons présents en région Lorraine  
http://www.floraine.net/index.php?id=28
List of vascular plants of Lorraine / France.
 
Flore Jura  
http://crdp.ac-besancon.fr/flore/flore/flor_fabac.htm
Plants of Franche-Comte, Jura, and southern part of Vosges.
 
Flore Alpes  
http://www.florealpes.com
Flora of the Western Alps, the Provence, and adjacent regions, selectable according to names, colors, date of flower, etc. In french language.
 
Nature Trek: The Maritime Alps  
https://www.naturetrek.co.uk/reports_new/FRA27_report_150613_The_Marit . . .
Report of a trip to the Maritime Alps in South Eastern France in June 2015, with lists of seen flora and fauna.
 
Société de Botanique de France: Voyage d'étude en Vanoise  
http://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/sbf/activ_vanoise.htm
Photo report of a botanical journey to the Vanoise in the French Alps.
 
Pyrenean Flowers  
http://www.pyreneanflowers.co.uk/Pyrenean Flowers/index.htm
Holiday photos of Pyrenean plants from a British Lady.
 
Vallée d'Eyne 7 août 2013  
http://www.lasalicaire.fr/fichiers/Liste Eyne.pdf
Plant list from Eyne valley (Pyrenees) in August.
An old plant list from Eyne from April 1920 can be found here.
 
Prodrome de la Flore Corse  
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40227
John Briquet's Flora of Corsica from 1910 in 2 volumes. Not all families are contained, the work had been planned for more volumes. The index of the first volume is found at the end of the books, the available part of the second volume doesn't contain an index. In französischer Sprache. More volumes are available at the Bibliotheque National de France (BnF).
 
Korsika 2006  
http://botany.uibk.ac.at/downloads/korsika_2006.pdf
Report of an excursion of the Botanical Institute of the University of Innsbruck (Austria) to Corsica in June 2006. Beneath scientific articles on several biotope types of the island there is a list of the found plants. In german language.
 
Fleurs de Cruzzini  
http://www.fleursducruzzini.fr/fleurs_003_liste_latin.html
About 60 plants from Cruzzini valley in Western Corsica are presented.
 
Invasive Plants de Corse  
http://cbnc.oec.fr/catalog_repository/uploads/7/ClassementInvasives.pd . . .
List of invasive neophytes of Corsica.
 
 
Spain + Portugal:
 
Flora Iberica  
http://www.floraiberica.org/
Official flora of Spain and Portugal, which is also issued as a series of books. Most of the proposed volumes have already been issued. Between the texts there are several black-and-white sketches, for Orobanche and Orchids are photos available, too. The PDF files are reached via the left window of 'Clave General' or via 'Familias' or 'Generas'. Unfortunately selection of the PDF text is disabled, so it's rather difficult to insert the Spanish texts into an automatic translation program.
 
Spanish Plants Information System  
http://www.anthos.es/
Spanish-Portuguese (including Canary Islands, Madeira and Azores) botanical information system, where plants can be searched acccording to several criteria, or e.g. complete lists of plants of regions can be generated.
 
Flora Vascular  
http://www.floravascular.com/
The descriptions of plants from Flora Iberica are combined with those from Spanisch regional floras for characteristics of the plants, illustrated with the drawings from Flora Iberica as far as available.
 
Familias Flores Silvestres de Espana  
http://www.hoseito.com/magento4/
This site is going to document the spanish flora in photos. Up to now mainly southern spanish species are available.
 
Flora silvestre del Mediterráneo  
http://www.florasilvestre.es/
Photos of western-mediterannean, usually spanish, plants sorted according to alfabeth, families, biotope types or different regions and mountains from Jose Quiles Hoyo.
 
Société de Botanique de France: Voyage d'étude en Espagne  
http://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/sbf/activ_espagne.htm
Photo report of a botanical journey to Spain.
 
FloraCatalana.net  
http://www.floracatalana.net/
Flora of the northern parts of Catalunya. There is a short description for every species. Some plants are provided with photos. In Catalan languade.
 
Biodiversity data bank of Catalonia  
http://biodiver.bio.ub.es/biocat/homepage.html
Distribution maps and other information on plants, animals etc. of Catalonia.
 
Flors de les Nostres Muntanyes  
http://pereespinet.net/
Photos of several plants of Catalonia, mainly of the Pyrenees selectable via small thumbnail images.
 
El Medi Natural del Bages  
http://ichn.iec.cat/Bages/index/index.htm
The Catalan site shows plants and also animals of the region Bages, i.e the region around Manresa and Montserrat, by short description and photo. In spanish and catalan language, parts also in english.
 
Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos  
http://www.floramontiberica.org/Atlas_BU/Atlas_BU.htm
Distribution maps, short descriptions and lists of regions of the vascular plants of the Province of Burgos. In Spanish language. Most probably the work exists in printed form, too. The work is also available in SCRIBD, where one has to log in for a download in suitable quality.
 
Picos de Europa Trip 2004  
http://www.iberianwildlife.com/picos-europa/bsbi-botanical-trip-report . . .
Plants found during a nine day trip to Picos de Europa in beginning of June 2004.
 
Picos de Europa Trip 2009  
http://www.iberianwildlife.com/blog/entry.aspx?ref=39
Plants and animals found during a trip to Picos de Europa in beginning of June 2009.
 
Orchid list Picos de Europa  
http://www.iberianwildlife.com/picos-europa/orchid-list-picos-europa.h . . .
Orchid list of the Picos de Europa, compiled from several sources.
 
Plantas silvestres de Ciudad Real  
http://sauce.pntic.mec.es/~ldepablo/silvestres_ne.htm
List of plants of the province of Ciudad Real, some with photo. Von Luis de Pablos Alcázar.
 
AlmeriNatura  
http://www.almerinatura.com/
Photos of plants, animals etc. from Almeria
 
Almería Natural  
http://www.almerianatural.com/index2.htm
Impressive photos of plants from mountains and nature reserves of the Province of Almeria. On parallel pages there are e.g. orchids.
 
Flora de Andalucía Occidental  
http://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/ing/Volumenes.php?Libro=4136
Flora of Western Andalusia in three volumes with determination keys, descriptions and black-and-white sketches of the plants. In Spanish language.
 
Flora vascular de Andalucía Oriental  
http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/medioambiente/web/1_consejeria_de_medio . . .
Flora of Eastern Andalusia in four volumes with determination keys and descriptions of the plants, as well as photos of some plants. The link is for volume 4, for the other volumes the 4 at the end is to be substituted by 1, 2, or 3. In Spanish language.
 
Flora Amenazada y Endémica de Sierra Nevada, 2001  
http://refugiopoqueira.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Flora-amenazada. . . .
The book on endemic and endangered plants of the Sierra Nevada containing descriptions, photo, and distribution map. In Spanish language.
 
Flora de Cadiz  
http://reservanatural.iespana.es/
Photos of many plants of the province of Cadiz.
 
Gibraltar Flora  
http://www.gonhs.org/flora.htm
Lists of plants, animals, etc. occurring in Gibraltar. Issued by the Gibraltar Ornithological and Natural History Society (GONHS).
 
Atlas y Libro Rojo de la Flora Vascular Amenazada de España. Adenda 2010  
http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/biodiversidad/temas/inventarios-nacionale . . .
Additions 2008 to the Red Book of Spanish flora, with photo, description and map of very rare plants, usually local endemisms. In Spanish language.
 
Herbari virtual de les Illes Balears  
http://herbarivirtual.uib.es/
Short descriptions and ususally some photos in good qualtity of the plants of the western Mediterranean, issued by the university of the Balearic Islands. Sorted according to families or biotopes, or one can enter sites on endemisms, neophytes, parasites, protected plants, useful plants, ferns, orchids, etc. In spanish, catalan and english language.
 
Mallorca-Exkursion 2008 der Ruhr-Universität Bochum  
http://www.botanik-bochum.de/mallorca2008/index.htm
Photos of plants from Mallorca, and also the list of plants and the program of the excursion, which took place end of march 2008.
 
Pflanzenlisten Mallorca 2005  
http://online-media.uni-marburg.de/biologie/botex/mallorca05/andreas/h . . .
Lists of striking plants of 19 different sites of Mallorca, which have been found in march 2005, partly with photos. Here you can find an overall plant list.
 
The Mallorca Pages  
http://www.nature-diary.co.uk/mallorca/index.htm
14 pages of plant photos from a Mallorca trip from march 2004, and supplemental 8 pages from End of April 2005.
 
Flora und Vegetation der Straßenränder Mallorcas  
http://rzbl04.biblio.etc.tu-bs.de:8080/docportal/servlets/MCRFileNodeS . . .
Flora and vegetation of the roadsides of the Spanish island of Mallorca, from Dietmar Brandes. In german language.
 
Sóller Botanic Garden  
http://www.jardibotanicdesoller.org/de/jbs.php
Site of the Sóller Botanic Garden, island of Mallorca. The beds of the garden are introduced, not only on Balearic plants, but also on those of other Mediterranean and Canarian Islands, as well as garden, useful, and medicine plants. The site is available in Spanish, English, French languages, most parts also in German.
 
Flora und Fauna der südlichsten Pityusen-Insel Formentera  
http://www.islabotanica.de/
The site from Barbara Klahr contains a list of the plants of Formentera, the most southern of the Balearic Islands. Addition of photos is planned. For the orchids photos are already available.
 
Flora on (Portugal)  
http://www.flora-on.pt/
The Botanical Society of Portugal presents more than 2000 plants of the country with photos, ecological attributes and distribution maps.
 
Flora digital de Portugal  
http://jb.utad.pt/flora
The search in the database of the plants of Portugal delivers brief data sheets, some with photos, issued by the Botanical Garden UTAD at Porto. Here the data base can be searched according to genus, family, higher orders, or Portuguese name.
 
 
Italy:
 
Flora Italiana  
http://irapl.altervista.org/flora/
Lists of Italian Plants, always a genus per page arranged in a table, with small distribution maps according to provinces (which seem not to be complete), altitude range, time of flower, link on Google search for images, etc.
Another view of the pages, based on the same data base, is reachable under http://luirig.altervista.org/flora/. Here are partly images arranged at the end of the species pages. A list of the species per province is also selectable here.
 
Il fascino scientifico dei fiori  
http://www.webalice.it/tregattilongo/files/nomescientifico.htm
The plants of Italy in distribution maps according to provinces and each a photo. There are also sortings according to flower color, biologic form, number of petals, month of flower, type of biotope, province, etc.
 
Acta Plantarum  
http://www.actaplantarum.org/acta/albums.php
Gallery with more than 3700 italian plants, as well as forums. In italian language.
 
Flora Veronese  
http://www.floraveronese.net/
Photos of plants from the region of Verona.
 
Flora Alpina Bergamasca  
http://www.floralpinabergamasca.net/modules.php?name=Contenuto
About 160 plants of the lombardian region are presented in each a photo and a description, which contains mainly history of investigation and naming of the plants, as well as in some cases the distribution. In italian language.
 
Flora delle Alpi Marittime  
http://www.floramarittime.it/genere.php
According to its own text this site presents a complete survey of the plants of 'Alpi Marittime', i.e. parts of Liguria und South-East France. The area goes along the coast from Albenga to west up to the Esterel mountains, and in the hinterland from Colle delle Maddalena to east further than Cuneo. This area contains about 55% of all Italian plants. Usually there is a photo per species, which often doesn't show details. In italian language.
 
Fiori protetti in Liguria  
http://digilander.libero.it/marcodlg1/indice latino.htm
List of about 90 protected plants of Liguria, of which few are presented with a photo and a text. In italian language.
 
Pagina di Giorgio Venturini  
http://www.giorgioventurini.net/fiori/fiori_insieme.html
The author from Val d'Aveto northeast of Genova in Liguria presents hundreds of plants in good photos and a short text in italian language. There are also animals, mushrooms, etc.
 
Flora Cremasca  
http://flora.garz.net/~giordana/florat.htm
Inventory and some more information on the plants of the province of Cremona. In italian language.
 
Check List della flora vascolare del Monte Argentario  
http://www.monteargentario.it/territorio/floraar.htm
List of the vascular plants of Monte Argentario, distributed on 24 pages.
 
Archipelago Toscano: La flora - Esemplari ed habitat  
http://www.legambientearcipelagotoscano.it/biodiversita/flora/habitat. . . .
Plants of the islands of Tuscany, sorted according to biotope types. The biggest of these islands is Elba.
 
Archipelago Toscano: La flora - Gli endemismi  
http://www.legambientearcipelagotoscano.it/biodiversita/flora/endemism . . .
List of endemisms of the islands of Tuscany.
 
Pflanzengeographie von Sizilien  
http://www.dipbot.unict.it/phyto_de/territori/territori.html
Site of the University of Catania on plant geography and plants of Sicily, sorted according to regions, with special regard to endemisms. The page linked above is in german language, it is also available in Italian and Spanish.
 
Société de Botanique de France: Voyage d'étude en Sardaigne  
http://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/sbf/activ_sardaigne.htm
Photo report of a botanical journey to Sardinia.
 
 
Eastern Europe:
 
Icones Florae Germanicae et Helveticae  
http://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/ing/Volumenes.php?Libro=908
Many volume work with short descriptions in german language and color drawings of the plants, issued by the botanist H. G. Reichenbach from Dresden between 1834 and 1909. The worked area is Central Europa and its peripherals as parts of Northern Italy, Alsace, Belgium, Netherlands, Danmark, Prussia, as well as the Eastern Regions belonging to the Austrian-Hungarian Empire as e.g. Moravia, Hungary, Istria, Dalmatia, Transsilvania, etc. The list of the volumes with links can be found at 'Central Europe' above.
 
(Tschechien / Czechia) CSOP ZO Horepnik  
http://www.csophorepnik.estranky.cz
Web site of a botanical club from Horepník in Czechia (between Praha and Brno), with many portaits of plants, but unfortunately the selection is only possible via Czech names and not via scientific names, with texts only in Czech language. For me the most interesting part of the site are series of photos from botanical excursions, mainly to Eastern Europe.
 
(Slowenien / Slovenia) Zaplana.net  
http://www.zaplana.net/flowers/
Photos of more than 500 plants from Slovenia.
 
(Slowenien / Slovenia) Kamniski vrh  
http://kamniski-vrh.net/gallery2.html
A site from Slovenia which presents more than 600 plants of the Kamnik Alps north of Ljubljana in photos. Short texts in slovenian language, which I can't read, are also available.
 
Triglav National Park  
http://cdn.innvista.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Triglav-National-Pa . . .
List of plants and animals of Triglav National Park in Slovenia.
 
Flora Croatica Database  
http://hirc.botanic.hr/fcd/search.aspx
Data base of Croatian plants. Input a species, genus or family name etc., and you get a result page back. Beneath distribution maps as well as information on nomenclature and endangering, there are also photos. Information on locations has been disabled for normal users, some years ago it was still available. A site of the Institut for Botany of the University of Zagreb in english and croatian language.
 
Flora Croatica  
http://openlibrary.org/books/OL22880295M/Flora_Croatica
Historical book from 1869 on the ferns and flowering plants of Croatia, from Schlosser and Farkas-Vukotinovic. The book contains keys in latin language.
 
Istrianet: Flora  
http://www.istrianet.org/istria/flora/
Collection of several pages on plants from Istria (Croatia): Incomplete list of plants, photos of some plants, articles on plants of the nature reserve Prematura peninsula / Cape Kamenjak near Pula, alpine plants, poisonous plants, and several others. Parts in italian, english, german, and croatian language.
 
Florenliste Süd-Albanien 2005  
http://www.naturatours.ch/PDF/Floraliste_Albanien05.pdf
Flora list of a trip in South Albania with sites.
 
The Bulgarian flora online  
http://www.bgflora.net/
Photos and information on distribution and protection, as well as flower season and size of a selection of plants of Bulgaria. In bulgarian and english language.
 
Rila National Park  
http://cdn.innvista.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Rila-National-Park. . . .
Certainly incomplete list of plants and animals of Rila National Park in Bulgaria.
 
MyNature - Romanian Species Information Center  
https://kladia.info/docs/index.php
Plant and animal information site from Romania. The pages with photos of species are direectly accessible, for some other actions one has to register freely. At least parts are available in several languages, among these English and French.
 
Flora of Romania on-line  
http://www.floraofromania.transsilvanica.net/documents_and_photographs . . .
About 1300 plant species from Romania shown by each several photos. English language.
 
(Polen / Poland) Skorowidz naukowych nazw roslin  
http://www.atlas-roslin.pl/skorowidz.htm
Large collection of plant photos from Poland.
 
(Russia and former USSR)  
http://www.ecosystema.ru/08nature/photo/eng/abc.htm
Photos of plants, animals, landscapes etc. of scientific excursions in Russia and other parts of former USSR. In english and russian language.
 
 
Greece:
 
Flora of Greece  
http://portal.cybertaxonomy.org/flora-greece/intro
Rough distribution maps of Greek plants, for which Greece is divided into 13 regions as in the book 'Vascular plants of Greece: An annotated checklist' (2013), issued by the Hellenic Botanical Society, the University of Patras, and the Botanical Museum of Berlin. In English language.
 
Greek Flora  
http://www.greekflora.gr/
Photos and partly dot distribution maps for more than 3400 taxa of the Greek flora. In Greek language.
 
Flora Graeca Sibthorpiana  
http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/users/millsr/isbes/FG/FGD1/thumbnails.html
The Greek flora from Johannes Sibthorp in several volumes from the 19th century has been reproduced for the web, but in relative poor quality. All volumes contain colored etchings of plants, not only from Greece and its islands, but also from Cyprus and Sicily. The newer "FGE1" to "FGE5" volumes and the two "Sherard" volumes contain also latin descriptions of the shown plants. The link above points to the first volume.
Vol. FGD1           Vol. FGD2           Vol. FGD3           Vol. FGD4           Vol. FGD5
Vol. FGE1           Vol. FGE2           Vol. FGE3           Vol. FGE4           Vol. FGE5
Text Vol. 1 - 2 (Prodromus): View Vol. 1 - 2   Download Vol. 1   Download Vol. 2
 
Greek Mountain Flora  
http://www.greekmountainflora.info/
Photos of plants from varies regions of Greece including Crete, mainly of the mountain flora. Issued by travellers from Netherlands.
 
Willing Contributions to Flora Hellenica  
http://www.willing-botanik.de/
Detailed reports on plant findings in Greece (North, Central-Greece, Peloponnisos, Euboea) by E. R.Willing between 2002 and today. The site contains also photos of plants and biotopes.
 
Hellenic Nature  
http://hellenicnature.blogspot.de/search/label/FLORA
A blog which shows some hundred of Greek plants in photos.
 
Flora Hellenica  
http://florahellenica.blogspot.de/
A blog which shows a number of Greek plants in photos.
 
Errata to T. Lafranchis and G. Sfikas: Flowers of Greece  
erlafrsf.htm
The two books and one DVD edition 'Flowers of Greece' from T. Lafranchis and G. Sfikas (DIATHEO Paris 2009) is a valuable tool for determination of plants from Greece including its islands. A big part of the occurring plants is described briefly, many of these are also shown in photos. It is almost inevitable that such a large work contains some errors. Those which I have found when working with it or which were told to me I collected in the small internet page mentioned above.
 
Flora Attica  
http://floraattica.blogspot.com/search/label/BORAGINACEAE/
The site shows about 100 plants, most of which are frequent, among them 19 orchids. Attica is the region around Athens, with the mountains Hymettos (Ymittos) and Parnitha. Texts in greek language.
 
Flowers of Ymittos and Parnitha  
http://flowersofymittos.blogspot.de
A selection of flowering plants of the two mountains near athens, Ymittos and Parnitha, is shown in photos in this blog. There is also a blog on Peloponnese Flowers from the same author.
 
George Pantakis, Index  
http://users.att.sch.gr/gpantakis/?page_id=3114
Photos of some Greek plants, with an index of scientific names, all other texts are in Greek language.
 
Conspectus Florae Graecae  
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/title/9919&page/7/mode/1up
Flora of Greece by Halacsy 1901 with plant descriptions in latin language. Index on pages 771 to 825.
 
Pelion's Flora  
http://pelionsflora.wordpress.com/
Blog on the flora of the Pilion mountain, with several photos, in Greek language.
 
Flora und Vegetation der Straßenränder Korfus  
http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Dietmar_Brandes/publication/236340 . . .
Flora and vegetation of the roadsides of the Greek island of Korfu (Kerkyra), from Dietmar Brandes. In german language.
 
Azalas (Naxos) Herbarium  
http://azalas.de/blog/?page_id=945
Site of a botanical interested landlady of holiday houses on the botany of the village Azalas on the island of Naxos. In German language.
 
Zur Flora und Vegetation der Insel Elafonisos (Lakonien, Griechenland)  
http://www.botanik-jagel.de/diplom/Elafonisos_Flora.htm
Ecology and plant list of the island Elafonisos in Laconia, Greece, which is located at the south-eastern end of the Peloponnese. Student's work at the university of Bochum, Germany. The some hundred plants are sorted according to families or bloom color. With introduction on climate, geology etc. in german language.
 
Flora Amorgina  
http://floraamorgina.blogspot.com/2008_03_01_archive.html
Some Photos of plants of the island of Amorgos within a blog. The texts are in Greek which I unfortunately can't read.
 
Cretan Flora  
http://www.cretanflora.com/
More than 900 plant species of Grete are presented in usually several photos and text in English language.
 
Flowers of Crete  
http://www.west-crete.com/flowers-crete.htm
More than 100 Cretan plants are shown in usually very good photos.
 
Crete - A Unique Paradise of Flowers  
http://www.johannes-flohe.de/Buchbilder/A/0/deutsch.html
Photos of Cretan plants from a book "Crete - A Unique Paradise of Flowers", issued by the author. The link above is in german language, an english spoken version is also available.
 
Kreta Umweltforum  
http://www.kreta-umweltforum.de/pflanzen.htm
In the 'Kreta Umweltforum' (Crete Environment Forum) leaflets called 'Merkblätter' are available which present photos and short texts not only on landscape, people, and animals, but also several plants. In german language.
 
Cretan Flora  
http://www.dempseys.org.uk/creteflora.htm
Each one photo of about 90 plants of Crete, moreover there is a second page with up to now less plants.
 
Crete Naturetrek Tour Report 1.-8.April 2014  
https://www.naturetrek.co.uk/reports_new/GRC02_report_140401_Crete.pdf
Lists of lants and animals which have been seen at a guided Crete tour.
 
Flora of Rhodes  
http://worldplants.webarchiv.kit.edu/rhodos/
Data base from Michael Hassler and Bernd Schmitt with 1475 vascular plants of the island of Rhodes, with good photos.
 
Artenliste Tilos  
http://www.tilos-greece.de/infos/Tilos Arten.htm
Plant list of the Greek island of Tilos (Dodecanese).
Some older browsers deliver a wrong page, because they end the adress at the space character: in this case add the missing ' Arten.htm' manually in the browser's address line.
 
Tilo Botanica  
http://www.tilo-botanica.eu/
Flora of greek island of Tilos (Dodecanese) and translations of the plant names into several languages.
 
Eastern Aegean Flora Checklist  
http://www.chiosnature.org/english/eng_florachecklist.htm
A flora list of Chios, Lesvos, Psara, Samos, Icaria, and Western Turkey (west of Izmir) von Mike Taylor as excel file.
 
Liste der Pflanzen von Samos  
https://comperiana.blogspot.de/2011/01/acanthaceae-acanthus-molis-acer . . .
List of 735 vascular plants of 90 families from the Greek island of Samos, sorted according to families, in latin letters. The list is part of a blog on the nature of Samos, mainly the flora, which the author Georgos Fakas is writing since 2008 in Greek language. There are also links on other blogs on various aspects of the nature of Greece.
 
Travelling Naturalist Trip Report: Lesvos  
http://www.naturalist.co.uk/reports2005/lesvos2.php
The report of a trip to Lesvos contains also a list of the found plants.
 
Lesvos 2007  
http://www.honeyguide.co.uk/pdfs/2007-Lesvos.pdf
Natur travel report of a trip to Lesvos 20th to 27th of September 2007 with lists of seen birds and other animals as well as plants.
 
Honeyguide Wildlife Holidays: Lesvos  
http://www.honeyguide.co.uk/pdfs/lesvos-salisb2004.pdf
The report of a bird-watching excursion to Lesvos contains also a list of the found plants.
 
 
Cyprus:
 
Flora of Cyprus - a dynamic Checklist  
http://www.flora-of-cyprus.eu/
List of the plants of Cyprus, often equipped with a photo and some data. Some of the orchids, which have been described in the last tens of years, are missing, for other families I can't judge on that.
 
Endemic Plants of Cyprus  
http://www.naturemuseum.org.cy/lang1/endemic_plants.html
List of 128 endmic plants of Cyprus, often with links to photos.
 
Endemic plants of Cyprus  
http://www.moa.gov.cy/moa/fd/fd.nsf/a5e0199a400ea5d8c2257060003da28b/e . . .
List of 140 endemic plants of Cyprus.
 
Société de Botanique de France: La flore et la végétation de Chypre  
http://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/sbf/activ_chypre.htm
Photo report of two botanical journeys to Cyprus.
 
Persephone Wanderweg  
http://www.kypros.org/Zypern/persephone.html
On the Persephone walking path near Platres in Troodos mountains, with list of the typical plants which can be seen. In german language.
 
 
Turkey:
 
Türkiye Bitkileri - Plants of Turkey  
http://www.turkiyebitkileri.com/
A site containing photos of plants of Turkey from several Turkish amateur botanists, in English and Turkish language
 
Dogalhayat.org  
http://dogalhayat.org/kategori/turkiyenin-canli-turleri/plantae/
Plants of Turkey according to families, some with attached photos. One directory step higher there are also parts for animals und fungi.
 
Wildflowers of Turkey  
http://yabanicicek.com/bilimsel-alfabetik-liste.php
About 400 plants of Turkey are shown in photos. It is not mentioned in which area the author took his photos, but judging according to the plant assortment it seems to be in the Northwest. There is also a collection of botanical links.
 
Aromatic and Endemic Plants of Turkey  
http://home.anadolu.edu.tr/~saydin/endemic.htm
Plant Lists from Suleyman Aydin
 
The Virtual Herbarium of Van Province  
http://vanherbaryum.yyu.edu.tr/ingindex.htm
Information on plants of the turkish province of Van, partially with photos of living plants or herbarium specimens. The site is build up as cooperation between the university and the environment management authorities of Van. In turkish and partially english language.
 
Lökat  
http://lv-twk.oekosys.tu-berlin.de/project/amanos/index.htm
Plant list with photos of the Amanos mountain above Dörtygol in the Southeastern Province of Hatay, Turkey. A site of the university of Berlin.
 
Flora of Turkey  
http://www.floraofturkey.com
Photos of some plants from Turkey.
 
 
Middle East:
 
Flora of Israel Online  
http://flora.huji.ac.il/browse.asp?lang=en
Photos of plants from Israel. A site of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
 
Flora of Israel  
http://www.tiuli.com/flower_families.asp?lng=eng
Plant photos from Israel. Unfortunately the server is often overloaded, then only an error message comes up.
 
Wild Flowers of Israel  
http://www.wildflowers.co.il/english/
Photos of plants from Israel.
 
Flowers in Israel  
http://www.flowersinisrael.com/plant_list_alpha-a.htm
Photos of many flowers from Israel sorted according to the alphabet, flower color or families. There are also pages of plants of the Bible in english language, as well as lists of flowering times and of plants protected in Israel.
 
Checklist of plants of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan  
http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/jordan/index.php
Plant list of the Kingdom of Jordan.
 
Plants of Lebanon and Syria  
http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/imagelist.php
List of plants of Lebanon and Syria, with links to photos.
 
 
Northern Africa:
 
Malta Wild Plants  
http://www.maltawildplants.com
The author Stephen Mifsud presents more than 1100 plants of Malta and Gozo with many photos.
 
Flore et groupements végétaux du sud-ouest marocain  
http://www.teline.fr/
Photo of Plants from South West Morocco. In French language.
 
Société de Botanique de France: Voyage d'étude au Maroc  
http://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/sbf/activ_maroc.htm
Photo report of a botanical Morocco journey.
 
Exkursion nach Marokko 2005  
http://www.nees.uni-bonn.de/data/protokolle_exkursionen/marokko2005pro . . .
Report and plant lists of a botanical excursion of the University of Bonn / Germany. In German language.
 
Who knows web sites on the flora of Tunisia ? E-Mail:
 
Western Desert  
http://westerndesert.geolab.cz/en/flora.html
Contribution of Czech scientists on the Bahariya Oasis in the Egyptian Western Desert, with links to a survey of the biotope types and to an alfabetical sorted plant list with photos.
 
 
Canary Islands, Madeira, Azores:
 
Flora Canaria  
http://www.biologie.uni-regensburg.de/Botanik/Schoenfelder/kanaren/flo . . .
Photos of many vascular plants of the Canary Islands, including some garden plants.
 
Pflanzen der Kanaren  
http://botanik-jagel.de/kanaren/kanaren_einleitung.htm
Small photos of much more than 1000 plants of the canarian islands from Armin Jagel. With a short introduction in german language.
 
Kanaren und Madeira  
http://www.willing-botanik.de/pdf-kanaren/Pflanzenfamilien Kanaren.htm
Good photos of plants from Canary Islands and Madeira by E. R.Willing.
 
Biodiversidade dos Acores  
http://www.azoresbioportal.angra.uac.pt/
The site 'Data base of bio diversitiy of the Azores' contains plants, fungi, lichens, marine invertebrates and animals of the Azores. In English, Spanish, and Portuguese languages.
 
siehe auch oben bei Spanien # Portugal  
http://www.azoresbioportal.angra.uac.pt/
see also at Spain & Portugal above
 
 
Europe and the whole World:
 
Flora Europaea  
http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html
Search species or genus in the Flora Europaea. The family and genus names must start with a capital.
 
Mittelmeer- und Alpenflora  
http://www.mittelmeerflora.de/
Photo determination key for the plants of the southern half of Europe, implemented by Thomas Meyer and Michel Hassler. Up to now only few families are available, e.g. Campanulaceae, Linaceae, Asparagaceae, Araceae, Gentianaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Apocynaceae. Will be continued. In german language.
 
Museum National d'Historire Naturelle  
http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form
Thousands of herbary sheets which can be viewed in full size, provided by the natural history museum at Paris.
 
The Linnean Collections  
http://linnean-online.org/view/type/specimen/index.A.html
'The Linnean Society of London' shows herbarium sheets which can be enlarged (zoomed) so big that also details can be seen. Moreover there are scans of preparations of insects and fishes. A 'Flash' installation in the browser is needed for the zooming feature.
 
Pacific Bulb Society  
http://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/PhotographsAndInfo . . .
Short texts and photos on bulb plants (e.g. Lilies, Narcissus, Cyclamen, etc.) from everywhere in the world. For gardeners it has a remarkable scientific approach. Within the corresponding genus many European, North African, and Anterior Asian species are mentioned.
 
Semina-Tischler  
http://www.semina-tischler.de/
Seeds of thousands of mainly European plants, but also non-European plants from botanical gardens, drawn by Miliza Tischler.
 
Botanicus.de  
http://www.botanikus.de/
A botanical image data base with about 5000 photos of about 3000 european plants, as well as a list of german and scientific plant names for about 7000 species.
 
Gebirge der Erde  
http://www.ulmer.de/artikel.dll/artenlisten-burga_OTk3Ng.PDF
Lists of plants from Pyrenees, several parts of the Alpes, Carpatians, Caucasus, Ural, Western Norway, Sierra Nevada, Corsica, Etna (Sicily), Apennin, Olymp (GR), High Atlas (Morocco), and some other mountain regions of the world.
 
botanicaljourneys.com  
http://www.botanicaljourneys.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=art . . .
Lists of plants from trips to almost all countries of Western Europe, by a travel agency from Netherlands. And here there are links on official and private plant sites of European countries.
 
Mediterranean and Canary Islands Plants  
http://www.plant-pictures.com/index.htm
Plant photos from the Mediterranean and the Canarian Islands from Thomas Schoepke's page 'Plant Image Gallery'.
 
Photoflora (David Scott)  
http://homepage.ntlworld.com/david.scott40/
Photos of plants from Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Southern Spain, Portugal, Cyprus, Czechia, Slovakia, and several other countries.
 
EuroMed Plant Base  
http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html
Plant data base for Europe, especially the Mediterranean. The nomenklature is shown, including the names in several languages.
 
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group  
http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/welcome.html
Drafts of partly new order and family assignments of the vascular plants according to evolution and relationship. Represented is the draft no. 3 from 2009. The Boraginaceae and some non-European families aren't assigned to an order yet.
 
The Phylogeny of Angiosperms  
http://angio.bergianska.se/
Detailed presentation of the APG system of the Angiosperms on many pages. In subdirectory Bilder (= images) there are many photos including rare species which are stored systematically. An example is the page on Crucifers (Brassicaceae) which has 80 subpages containing several photos of every genus, another example the one on Composites (Asteraceae).
 
 
Genera + Families of Flowering Plants:
 
Offene Naturführer  
http://offene-naturfuehrer.de/web/
More than 400 determination keys for many genus in german language. Under Tabellarische_Bestimmungshilfen you can find some tables for determination of (British) Apiaceae, small flowered Epilobium, wood ferns, Black Poplar Hybrids, Potamogeton natans Hybrids.
 
Allium  
http://allium.wikidot.com/system:list-all-pages
Short descriptions and small photos of many Garlic species, in Danish language.
 
The Genus Lilium  
http://www.the-genus-lilium.com/
Descriptions and photos of Lilium species world-wide. A site in english and german language from Markus Hohenegger (Austria).
 
Amaryllidaceae  
http://www.amaryllidaceae.org/
Articles and links on the Amaryllidaceae family world-wide, to which genus Narcissus, Pancratium, Leucojum, Galanthus, Sternbergia etc. belong in Europe. In french language.
 
Lepidium, Geum  
http://www.flora-deutschlands.de/Lepidium/bestimmung_der_kleinen_lepid . . .
Detail photos for determination of the small Lepidium species virginicum, neglectum, densiflorum, ruderale. The site belongs to the internet presence of the Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der Flora Deutschlands (i.e. society for the exploration of the flora of Germany), which contains a photo determination site for Geum rivale, urbanum and its hybrid, too. In german language.
 
Primula World  
http://www.primulaworld.com/PWWeb/Index.shtml
The photo gallery contains photos of many species of genus Primula world-wide.
 
Androsace World  
http://www.alpines.be/androsaceworld/
The photo gallery contains photos of many species of genus Androsace world-wide.
 
Rubus in Schleswig-Holstein  
http://www.rubus-sh.de/
Photos and descriptions of blackberries of Schlewsig-Holstein (Northern Germany), in German language.
 
Semina Tischler: Ranunculaceae  
http://semina-tischler.de/fam/unten/-ran1-h-x.htm
Fruits of Ranunculaceae, drawed and manually shortly described, in German language.
 
Systematics and Biogeography of Lathyrus  
http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/92/7/1199
Determination of the relationship between different species of genus Lathyrus via DNA sequencing. For the complete article follow the link 'Full Text (PDF)' resp. 'Full Text (HTML)' on the right side.
 
Oxalis Schlüssel / Key  
http://www.ijon.de/oxal/oxalis.html
A key of central and south european Oxalis species from Michael Becker. Moreover he presents some ornamental Oxalis species, and gives an introduction into family Oxydalidaceae.
 
Identify a Euphrasia  
http://www.botanicalkeys.co.uk/flora/euphrasia/eucontent/EuSearch.ASP
This site from the Botanical Society of the British Isles helps with the determination of Euphrasia species.
 
Orowiki  
http://orowiki.org/wiki/
The site about Orobanche and their relatives is currently built up.
 
Orobanche - Photo Gallery of Species  
http://www.parasiticplants.siu.edu/Orobanchaceae/Orobanche.Gallery.htm . . .
Photos of Orobanche world wide.
 
Die Gattung Taraxacum im östlichen Deutschland  
http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/2 . . .
Determination keys and ink drawings of more than 170 Dandelion clans of Eastern Germany, by Ingo Uhlemann, issued as part 3 of the papers on floristic mapping of Sachsen-Anhalt in 2003.
 
Image gallery of the genus Taraxacum  
http://taraxacum.vasut.eu
Collection of photos of some Taraxacum species, often of plants which have grown from seed in scientific institutions, by the Czech scientist Radim J. Vasut.
 
Baumkunde.de  
http://www.baumkunde.de/
Determination of trees according to leaves, bark, blooms, fruits, etc., by means of photos.
 
Süßgräser Merkmale  
http://www.2pflanzenfreunde.de/HP-Seiten/suessgraeser bestimmen/Suessg . . .
Excel file for detemination of central european grasses according to tables with attributes, and links to photo pages of the species. The photo pages of the autors contain close-up photos of the relevant attributes.
 
Sauergräser der Schweiz  
http://www.wsl.ch/staff/ueli.graf/cx/
Keys for determination of Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Juncaginaceae, Scheuchzeriaceae of Switzerland in non-flowering state. In german language.
 
 
Fern Plants:
 
Pteridophyta.de  
http://www.pteridophyta.de
Community Web Site for people who are interested in fern plants. Characteristics of some ferns, club mosses, and horsetails. In german language.
 
Fern Crib  
http://ebps.org.uk/?s=fern crib
Determination site for ferns from the British Pteridological Society.
 
Fern ID  
http://fernid.info/
British data base for ferns.
 
Equisetum-Schlüssel  
http://www.botanik-bochum.de/html/publ/OVBBV2-6_Lubienski_Equisetum.pd . . .
Determination keys for Equisetum in Germany, including rare hybrids, in German language.
 
 
Mosses:
 
Moose Deutschland  
http://www.moosedeutschland.de/
Not public anymore, accessible only by login: Photos of hundreds of mosses which occur in Germany can be reached by inputting the name into a search mask. There are also distribution maps for some german regions. In german language.
 
Bestimmungsschlüssel für Moose des Geländes der Ruhr-Universität Bochum  
http://www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/biodivpfl/moose.html
Determination key for the mosses of the area of the University of Bochum, Germany. In German language.
 
Moose, von Michael Becker  
http://www.ijon.de/moose/geni/index.html
About 70 Central European mosses are presented in German language, few of these also in English and French. Additionally there is a survey about this plant group.
 
 
Lichens:
 
Bestimmungsschlüssel für Flechten des Geländes der Ruhr-Universität Bochum  
http://www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/biodivpfl/Flechten/flechten.html
Determination key for the lichens of the area of the University of Bochum, Germany. In German language.
 
Flechten Baden-Württembergs  
http://www.lubw.baden-wuerttemberg.de/servlet/is/47611/
The species list and Red list of the lichens of Baden-Württemberg, Southwest Germany, can be downloaded here.
 
Lichens of Belgium, Luxembourg and northern France  
http://www.lichenology.info/cgi-bin/baseportal.pl?htx=atlas
Site of lichens with hundreds of species, partly with photos and distribution maps
 
British Lichens  
http://www.britishlichens.co.uk/
Site on British lichens with photos of 550 species
 
Lichens of Ireland  
http://www.lichens.ie/
Lists and photos of lichens in Ireland.
 
Irish Lichens  
http://www.irishlichens.ie
Photos of lichens in Ireland.
 
Lichen Herbarium Botanical Museum University of Oslo  
http://www.nhm.uio.no/botanisk/lav/Photo_Gallery/
Large collection of lichen photos
 
 
Algae:
 
Algae Base  
http://www.algaebase.org/
Search for names of algae growing in the sea, in fresh water or terrestrically world wide. Extensive information is provided, for some species also a photo.
 
Liste der Meeresalgen von Helgoland  
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_der_Meeresalgen_von_Helgoland
List of the Brown, red and Green Algae of the German island of Helgoland.
 
 
Related Themes:
 
Pflanzen-Gallen / Plant Galls  
http://www.pflanzengallen.de/
Survey on plant galls with images, sorted according to latin plant names. In german language.
 
Baumbabies  
http://www.schulbiologiezentrum.info/Baumbabies Keimlinge Waldbäume.ht . . .
Seed leaves of plants are often looking rather different to the later normal leaves. The site shows seedlings of some trees (with leaves as well as with needles). For some browsers the link doesn't work, in this case the 'ä' of 'Waldbäume' has to be substituted by the three characters '%' 'E' '4'. In German language.
 
Flowers in Ultraviolet  
http://www.naturfotograf.com/UV_flowers_list.html
Each some plants of many families have been photographed on one hand normally, on the other hand using UV filter, as some insects see it. From Bjørn Rørslett.
 
 
Dictionaries and Etymology:
 
International Plant Name Index (IPNI)  
http://www.ipni.org/ipni/plantnamesearchpage.do
Search functions on plant names and their authors. The page is issued by the Botanical Gardens of Kew near London, where the plant names of the whole world are registrated.
 
Index Fungorum  
http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp
Search functions on names and authors of fungus incl. lichens.
 
World Checklist of selected Plant Families  
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
For 151 plant families (of which only some are occurring in Europe, e.g. Orchidaceae, Liliaceae, Lamiaceae, several small families of plants growing in water) this site of the botanical garden of Kew (where the botanical names of the whole world are registered) can show e.g. accepted names and synonyms or geographical distribution.
I checked some european orchid species, there are several synonym evalations unfounded, especially at Ophrys species which are supposed to be of hybridogenous origin. E.g. if one inputs 'Ophrys arachnitiformis', several other true species, e.g. Ophrys archipelagi, cephalonica, tyrrhena, and even splendida and cilentana, are wrongly displayed as synonyms of it.
 
The Plant List  
http://www.theplantlist.org/
Working list of all plant names with authors and status (accepted name or synonym). Provided as collaboration of Kew Gardens, Missouri Botanical Garden and several other institutions.
 
ICBN Melbourne Code 2012  
http://www.iapt-taxon.org/nomen/main.php
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature "Melbourne Code", valid from 2012.
 
ICBN Vienna Code 2006  
http://ibot.sav.sk/icbn/no frames/Contents.htm
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature "Vienna Code", valid from 2006. From 2012 it has been substituted by the "Melbourne Code", see above.
 
The free dictionary  
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/coriaceous
Verbal explanations of scientific terms, among these also botanical ones, in english language.
 
Dave's Garden Botanical Dictionary  
http://davesgarden.com/guides/botanary/
Reference work on botanical terms, of which the biggest part amounts to the meaning of the plant names.
 
Acta Plantarum, Etimologia  
http://actaplantarum.org/acta/etimologia.php?nome=A
Explanations (etymology) for the words of the scientific plant names of plants occurring in Italy and parly neighbor regions. In Italian language.
 
Gledhill, The Names of Plants  
http://www.planta.cn/forum/files_planta/the_names_of_plants_114.pdf
Book from David Gledhill 'The Names of Plants' (2008), which lists the etymology of the plant names. The older edition from 2002 can be found here.
 
California Plant Names  
http://www.calflora.net/botanicalnames/
A dictionary of botanical and biographical etymology. Latin and Greek meanings and derivations of the plant names, from a Californian (USA) flora.
 
Etymologisch-botanisches Handwörterbuch  
http://wwww.archive.org/details/etymologischbota1771witt
Etymological-botanical dictionary from Wittstein (1856) which contains explanations of many botanical genus names. In German language.
 
Dictionary of Botanical Epithets  
http://www.winternet.com/~chuckg/dictionary.html
Etymology of specific names.
 
Pilze Pilze, Wissenschaftliche Namen  
http://www.pilzepilze.de/wisnam.html
Radicals and endings of words used to build scientific names keyed alphabetically, from a site on mushrooms, in German language.
 
Harvard Herbaria, Index of Botanists  
http://kiki.huh.harvard.edu/databases/botanist_index.html
Brief biographic data of botanists, from whom plant specimens are in the Herbarium of the Harvard university.
 
Index Collectorum Herbarii Senckenbergiani  
http://www.senckenberg.de/files/content/forschung/abteilung/botanik/in . . .
Brief biographic data of botanists, from whom plant specimens are in the Herbarium of the Institute Senckenberg in Frankfurt. In German languange.
 
 
Forums for Plant Determination:
 
Pflanzenbestimmung  
http://forum.pflanzenbestimmung.de/viewforum.php?f=2
German Forums for determination of plants, mushrooms, etc. In german language.
 
NaFoKu Forum  
http://nafoku.de/forum/
Forum for determination of wild plants and animals from Central Europe including the Alpes. In german language.
 
Forum des Orchidees indigenes  
http://ophrys.bbactif.com/
French forums for native orchids, in french language.
 
Natura Mediterraneo  
http://www.naturamediterraneo.com
Italian forums for determination of plants, mushrooms, animals, etc.
In italian language.
 
 
Maps and Air Views:
 
Deine Berge Online Koordinaten Umrechner  
https://www.deine-berge.de/Rechner/Koordinaten/Dezimal/50,9
You can insert a coordinate in several coordinate systems, and it is converted into all other supported coordinate systems. Supported are geographic coordinates in three representations, UTM, German grid, Swiss grid and others. The location is also shown on a map or air view, of which several representations can be selected. In many cases I use this site now instead of the regional geo-portals in order to visualize or convert coordinates.
 
DOP Viewer Deutschland  
http://gdz.bkg.bund.de/web_openlayers/dop_viewer_ol.htm
DOP Viewer: Air views of whole Germany
 
Deutschland Viewer  
http://www.geodatenzentrum.de/geodaten/gdz_rahmen.gdz_div?gdz_spr=deu
Maps of whole Germany
 
GeoLive Navigator Deutschland  
http://geoportal.geodaten.niedersachsen.de/navigator/basicviewer.jsp?M . . .
Map of Germany.
 
Bayern Atlas  
http://geoportal.bayern.de/bayernatlas/
Official maps and air views of Bavaria / Southern Germany. For several of the following map services Java is needed and pop-ups must be enabled. The map services of this and the following German 'Bundesländer' are usually in German language.
 
Baden-Württemberg Geo Viewer  
http://www.geoportal-bw.de/
Geo data viewer of Baden Württemberg (Southwest Germany)
 
Rheinland-Pfalz  
http://www.geoportal.rlp.de/portal/karten.html?WMC=2896
Official maps of Rheinland-Pfalz / Southwest Germany: After start-up a colored map with plot names is shown. Locations with street names or coordinates in different systems (German grid Gauß Krüger, UTM, geogr. only decimal-degree) can be shown. Only German grid Gauß-Krüger coordinates can be indicated.
 
LANIS Rheinland-Pfalz  
http://map1.naturschutz.rlp.de/kartendienste_naturschutz/index.php
Maps of Nature Reserves in Rheinland-Pfalz
 
Geoportal Saarland  
http://geoportal.saarland.de/portal/de/
Official maps of Saarland
 
Geoportal Hessen  
http://www.geoportal.hessen.de/portal/karten.html
Official maps and aerial views of Hessen
 
Hessen Natura 2000  
http://natura2000-verordnung.hessen.de/viewer.htm
Maps of nature reserves of Hessen
 
Nordrhein-Westfalen  
http://www.geoserver.nrw.de/einstieg60.html
Map services of geo server Nordrhein-Westfalen: After start-up maps in black and white (grey scales) are shown, the usual colored indication can also be chosen. Names of streets are shown, but not names of plots. You can search locations incl. street names or coordinates in the usual representations (German grid Gauß-Krüger, UTM, or geogr.).
 
Niedersachsen  
http://www.geodaten.niedersachsen.de/portal/live.php?navigation_id=867 . . .
Official maps of Niedersachsen / Northern Germany
 
Niedersachsen  
http://geoportal.geodaten.niedersachsen.de/navigator/basicviewer.jsp?M . . .
Official maps of Niedersachsen / Northern Germany
 
Geoportal Bremen  
http://www.geo.bremen.de/sixcms/detail.php?gsid=bremen04.c.11329.de
Official Map of Bremen in Northern Germany (without Bremerhaven)
 
Geo-Online Hamburg  
https://www.geoportal-hamburg.de/Geoportal/geo-online/?layerIDs=453
Official Maps of Hamburg (Northern Germany)
 
Geoportal Schleswig-Holstein  
http://portal.digitaleratlasnord.de
Official Maps of Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg (Northern Germany)
 
Geoproxy Thüringen  
http://www.geoproxy.geoportal-th.de/geoclient/
Official maps of Thüringen
 
Sachsenatlas  
https://geoviewer.sachsen.de/mapviewer/index_opt.html?position={"x":48 . . .
Official Maps of Sachsen
 
Sachsen-Anhalt-Viewer  
http://www.lvermgeo.sachsen-anhalt.de/de/geoservice/viewer/main2.htm
Official Maps of Sachsen-Anhalt
 
Brandenburg-Viewer  
http://bb-viewer.geobasis-bb.de/?zoom=6
Official Maps of Brandenburg (East Germany)
 
FIS Broker Berlin und Brandenburg  
http://fbinter.stadt-berlin.de/fb/index.jsp?loginkey=zoomStart
Maps of land development plans for Berlin and Brandenburg
 
GAIA Mecklenburg-Vorpommern  
http://www.gaia-mv.de/gaia/gaia.php
Official Maps of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Northeast Germany)
 
Landeskarten der Schweiz  
http://www.swisstopogeodata.ch/geodatenviewer/
National maps of Switzerland
 
Austrian Map Online  
http://www.austrianmap.at/amap/index.php?SKN=1
Austrian map on-line
 
Bergfex  
http://www.bergfex.de/
In this information site for mountain walkers and winter sporting persons a map with altitude lines and some walking paths can be opened via 'Karte einblenden', the map can even be shown as full screen.
 
Kompass-Karte  
http://www.kompass.de/touren-und-regionen/wanderkarte/
Restricted online version of the Kompasss walking maps. Not the best maps but the walking paths well visible.
 
Onlinekarten Übersicht  
http://www.powderplus.de/topografische-onlinekarten-ubersicht/
Links to the online maps portals of France, Italy, Swiss, Austria, Slovenia, Spain, Norway, Iceland, and other countries.
 
Geoportal Luxemburg  
http://map.geoportail.lu/theme/main?lang=fr
Official map of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
 
Geo Data Ireland  
http://maps.osi.ie/publicviewer
Geo data of Ireland
 
Griechenland / Greece  
http://www.visitgreece.gr/en/downloads/maps
The Greek Ministry of Tourism offers some road maps and walking maps for downloading. In several languages.
 
Google Maps  
https://www.google.de/maps
Word wide road maps from Google. The coordinates of a certain location can be determined by approaching the location with the mouse, in the right mouse key menu click 'Center here', then the coordinates as UTM (WGS-84) can be seen via the 'link' right above the map behind 'll='.
 
Freeway Maps  
http://www.informationfreeway.org
Maps of a participation project, the quality between very good and very bad depends on the region. Coordinates as UTM (WGS-84) can be seen in the right lower corner if approaching a location with the mouse.
 
 
Central Eur.    North Eur.   F   E   I   GR   East Eur.   TR   
Fam.   Mosses   Lichens   IPNI   Forums
 

To top
 
Start page
 
Contents
 
Orchids
 
Other Plants
 
Plants acc. to Families
 
.. Relationship
 
.. Scientific Names
 
.. German Names
 
.. English Names
 
.. Specific Names
 
.. Flower Anatomy
 
.. Bloom Colors
 
.. Leaf Form
 
.. Regions
 
.. Photo Month
 
.. Fruits + Seed
 
.. Roots + Bulbs
 
Trees
 
Bushes
 
Water Plants
 
Climbers + Twiners
 
Useful Pl.
 
Ornamental Pl.
 
Color Var.
 
Multiple Criteria
 
Biotopes + Groups
 
15-Sep-2017

Copyright: Use of the images and texts only with author's written permission.